Mechanisms of Symmetry Breaking in a Multidimensional Flashing Particle Ratchet

Ofer Kedem, Bryan Lau, Emily A Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ratcheting is a mechanism that produces directional transport of particles by rectifying nondirectional energy using local asymmetries rather than a net bias in the direction of transport. In a flashing ratchet, an oscillating force (here, an AC field) is applied perpendicular to the direction of transport. In an effort to explore the properties of current experimentally realizable ratchet systems, and to design new ones, this paper describes classical simulations of a damped flashing ratchet that transports charged nanoparticles within a transport layer of finite, non-zero thickness. The thickness of the layer, and the decay of the applied field in the z-direction throughout that thickness, provide a mechanism of symmetry breaking in the system that allows the ratchet to produce directional transport using a temporally unbiased oscillation of the AC driving field, a sine wave. Sine waves are conveniently produced experimentally or harvested from natural sources but cannot produce transport in a 1D or pseudo-1D system. The sine wave drive produces transport velocities an order of magnitude higher than those produced by the common on/off drive, but lower than those produced by a temporally biased square wave drive (unequal durations of the positive and negative states). The dependence of the particle velocity on the thickness of the transport layer, and on the homogeneity of the oscillating field within the layer, is presented for all three driving schemes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7148-7155
Number of pages8
JournalACS Nano
Volume11
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 25 2017

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broken symmetry
sine waves
alternating current
square waves
homogeneity
asymmetry
Nanoparticles
nanoparticles
oscillations
decay
Direction compound
simulation
energy

Keywords

  • broken symmetry
  • Brownian motor
  • finite element
  • flashing ratchet
  • nonequilibrium
  • particle ratchet
  • simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Mechanisms of Symmetry Breaking in a Multidimensional Flashing Particle Ratchet. / Kedem, Ofer; Lau, Bryan; Weiss, Emily A.

In: ACS Nano, Vol. 11, No. 7, 25.07.2017, p. 7148-7155.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kedem, Ofer ; Lau, Bryan ; Weiss, Emily A. / Mechanisms of Symmetry Breaking in a Multidimensional Flashing Particle Ratchet. In: ACS Nano. 2017 ; Vol. 11, No. 7. pp. 7148-7155.
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