Mechanistic investigations of nanometer-scale lithography at liquid-covered graphite surfaces

Reginald M. Penner, Michael J. Heben, Nathan S. Lewis, Calvin F. Quate

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Pulse-induced nanometer-scale lithography has been performed on graphite surfaces that were in contact with pure water or other organic liquids. Very reproducible control over the pit diameter was observed in aqueous solutions, and a well-defined voltage threshold (4.0±0.2 V) was also apparent. Near the threshold voltage, 7 Å diameter×2 Å high protrusions were formed, while larger initial pulse voltages resulted in pits of diameter>20 Å.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1389-1391
Number of pages3
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 1991


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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