Pulse-induced nanometer-scale lithography has been performed on graphite surfaces that were in contact with pure water or other organic liquids. Very reproducible control over the pit diameter was observed in aqueous solutions, and a well-defined voltage threshold (4.0±0.2 V) was also apparent. Near the threshold voltage, 7 Å diameter×2 Å high protrusions were formed, while larger initial pulse voltages resulted in pits of diameter>20 Å.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)