The properties of high- κ metal oxide gate stacks are often determined in the final processing steps following dielectric deposition. We report here results from medium energy ion scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of oxygen and silicon diffusion and interfacial layer reactions in multilayer gate stacks. Our results show that Ti metallization of Hf O2 Si O2 Si stacks reduces the Si O2 interlayer and (to a more limited extent) the Hf O2 layer. We find that Si atoms initially present in the interfacial Si O2 layer incorporate into the bottom of the high- κ layer. Some evidence for Ti-Si interdiffusion through the high- κ film in the presence of a Ti gate in the crystalline Hf O2 films is also reported. This diffusion is likely to be related to defects in crystalline Hf O2 films, such as grain boundaries. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and corresponding electron energy loss spectroscopy scans show aggressive Ti-Si intermixing and oxygen diffusion to the outermost Ti layer, given high enough annealing temperature. Thermodynamic calculations show that the driving forces exist for some of the observed diffusion processes.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films|
|Publication status||Published - 2007|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films