Microcrystallization techniques for serial femtosecond crystallography using photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus as a model system

Christopher Kupitz, Ingo Grotjohann, Chelsie E. Conrad, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhury, Raimund Fromme, Petra Fromme

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) is a new emerging method, where X-ray diffraction data are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nano or microcrystals of biomolecules in their mother liquor using high-energy, X-ray free-electron lasers. The success of SFX experiments strongly depends on the ability to grow large amounts of well-ordered nano/microcrystals of homogeneous size distribution. While methods to grow large single crystals have been extensively explored in the past, method developments to grow nano/ microcrystals in sufficient amounts for SFX experiments are still in their infancy. Here, we describe and compare three methods (batch, free interface diffusion (FID) and FID centrifugation) for growth of nano/microcrystals for time-resolved SFX experiments using the large membrane protein complex photosystem II as a model system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20130316
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1647
Publication statusPublished - Jul 17 2014



  • Crystallization
  • Femtosecond crystallography
  • Free-electron laser
  • Nanocrystals
  • Photosystem II

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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