Microwave- and nitronium ion-enabled rapid and direct production of highly conductive low-oxygen graphene

Pui Lam Chiu, Daniel D T Mastrogiovanni, Dongguang Wei, Cassandre Louis, Min Jeong, Guo Yu, Peter Saad, Carol R. Flach, Richard Mendelsohn, Eric Garfunkel, Huixin He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Currently the preferred method for large-scale production of solution-processable graphene is via a nonconductive graphene oxide (GO) pathway, which uncontrollably cuts sheets into small pieces and/or introduces nanometer-sized holes in the basal plane. These structural changes significantly decrease some of graphenes remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we report an unprecedented fast and scalable approach to avoid these problems and directly produce large, highly conductive graphene sheets. This approach intentionally excludes KMnO 4 from Hummers methods and exploits aromatic oxidation by nitronium ions combined with the unique properties of microwave heating. This combination promotes rapid and simultaneous oxidation of multiple non-neighboring carbon atoms across an entire graphene sheet, thereby producing only a minimum concentration of oxygen moieties sufficient to enable the separation of graphene sheets. Thus, separated graphene sheets, which are referred to as microwave-enabled low-oxygen graphene, are thermally stable and highly conductive without requiring further reduction. Even in the absence of polymeric or surfactant stabilizers, concentrated dispersions of graphene with clean and well-separated graphene sheets can be obtained in both aqueous and organic solvents. This rapid and scalable approach produces high-quality graphene sheets of low oxygen content, enabling a broad spectrum of applications via low-cost solution processing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5850-5856
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume134
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 4 2012

Fingerprint

Graphite
Microwaves
Graphene
Ions
Oxygen
Stabilizers (agents)
Oxidation
Microwave heating
Dispersions
Surface-Active Agents
Heating
Organic solvents
Oxides
Electric properties
Surface active agents
Carbon
Costs and Cost Analysis
Atoms
Mechanical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Catalysis
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

Cite this

Chiu, P. L., Mastrogiovanni, D. D. T., Wei, D., Louis, C., Jeong, M., Yu, G., ... He, H. (2012). Microwave- and nitronium ion-enabled rapid and direct production of highly conductive low-oxygen graphene. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134(13), 5850-5856. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja210725p

Microwave- and nitronium ion-enabled rapid and direct production of highly conductive low-oxygen graphene. / Chiu, Pui Lam; Mastrogiovanni, Daniel D T; Wei, Dongguang; Louis, Cassandre; Jeong, Min; Yu, Guo; Saad, Peter; Flach, Carol R.; Mendelsohn, Richard; Garfunkel, Eric; He, Huixin.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, No. 13, 04.04.2012, p. 5850-5856.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chiu, PL, Mastrogiovanni, DDT, Wei, D, Louis, C, Jeong, M, Yu, G, Saad, P, Flach, CR, Mendelsohn, R, Garfunkel, E & He, H 2012, 'Microwave- and nitronium ion-enabled rapid and direct production of highly conductive low-oxygen graphene', Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 134, no. 13, pp. 5850-5856. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja210725p
Chiu, Pui Lam ; Mastrogiovanni, Daniel D T ; Wei, Dongguang ; Louis, Cassandre ; Jeong, Min ; Yu, Guo ; Saad, Peter ; Flach, Carol R. ; Mendelsohn, Richard ; Garfunkel, Eric ; He, Huixin. / Microwave- and nitronium ion-enabled rapid and direct production of highly conductive low-oxygen graphene. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2012 ; Vol. 134, No. 13. pp. 5850-5856.
@article{8f10906ebefb451887fa003926255c4e,
title = "Microwave- and nitronium ion-enabled rapid and direct production of highly conductive low-oxygen graphene",
abstract = "Currently the preferred method for large-scale production of solution-processable graphene is via a nonconductive graphene oxide (GO) pathway, which uncontrollably cuts sheets into small pieces and/or introduces nanometer-sized holes in the basal plane. These structural changes significantly decrease some of graphenes remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we report an unprecedented fast and scalable approach to avoid these problems and directly produce large, highly conductive graphene sheets. This approach intentionally excludes KMnO 4 from Hummers methods and exploits aromatic oxidation by nitronium ions combined with the unique properties of microwave heating. This combination promotes rapid and simultaneous oxidation of multiple non-neighboring carbon atoms across an entire graphene sheet, thereby producing only a minimum concentration of oxygen moieties sufficient to enable the separation of graphene sheets. Thus, separated graphene sheets, which are referred to as microwave-enabled low-oxygen graphene, are thermally stable and highly conductive without requiring further reduction. Even in the absence of polymeric or surfactant stabilizers, concentrated dispersions of graphene with clean and well-separated graphene sheets can be obtained in both aqueous and organic solvents. This rapid and scalable approach produces high-quality graphene sheets of low oxygen content, enabling a broad spectrum of applications via low-cost solution processing.",
author = "Chiu, {Pui Lam} and Mastrogiovanni, {Daniel D T} and Dongguang Wei and Cassandre Louis and Min Jeong and Guo Yu and Peter Saad and Flach, {Carol R.} and Richard Mendelsohn and Eric Garfunkel and Huixin He",
year = "2012",
month = "4",
day = "4",
doi = "10.1021/ja210725p",
language = "English",
volume = "134",
pages = "5850--5856",
journal = "Journal of the American Chemical Society",
issn = "0002-7863",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "13",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Microwave- and nitronium ion-enabled rapid and direct production of highly conductive low-oxygen graphene

AU - Chiu, Pui Lam

AU - Mastrogiovanni, Daniel D T

AU - Wei, Dongguang

AU - Louis, Cassandre

AU - Jeong, Min

AU - Yu, Guo

AU - Saad, Peter

AU - Flach, Carol R.

AU - Mendelsohn, Richard

AU - Garfunkel, Eric

AU - He, Huixin

PY - 2012/4/4

Y1 - 2012/4/4

N2 - Currently the preferred method for large-scale production of solution-processable graphene is via a nonconductive graphene oxide (GO) pathway, which uncontrollably cuts sheets into small pieces and/or introduces nanometer-sized holes in the basal plane. These structural changes significantly decrease some of graphenes remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we report an unprecedented fast and scalable approach to avoid these problems and directly produce large, highly conductive graphene sheets. This approach intentionally excludes KMnO 4 from Hummers methods and exploits aromatic oxidation by nitronium ions combined with the unique properties of microwave heating. This combination promotes rapid and simultaneous oxidation of multiple non-neighboring carbon atoms across an entire graphene sheet, thereby producing only a minimum concentration of oxygen moieties sufficient to enable the separation of graphene sheets. Thus, separated graphene sheets, which are referred to as microwave-enabled low-oxygen graphene, are thermally stable and highly conductive without requiring further reduction. Even in the absence of polymeric or surfactant stabilizers, concentrated dispersions of graphene with clean and well-separated graphene sheets can be obtained in both aqueous and organic solvents. This rapid and scalable approach produces high-quality graphene sheets of low oxygen content, enabling a broad spectrum of applications via low-cost solution processing.

AB - Currently the preferred method for large-scale production of solution-processable graphene is via a nonconductive graphene oxide (GO) pathway, which uncontrollably cuts sheets into small pieces and/or introduces nanometer-sized holes in the basal plane. These structural changes significantly decrease some of graphenes remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we report an unprecedented fast and scalable approach to avoid these problems and directly produce large, highly conductive graphene sheets. This approach intentionally excludes KMnO 4 from Hummers methods and exploits aromatic oxidation by nitronium ions combined with the unique properties of microwave heating. This combination promotes rapid and simultaneous oxidation of multiple non-neighboring carbon atoms across an entire graphene sheet, thereby producing only a minimum concentration of oxygen moieties sufficient to enable the separation of graphene sheets. Thus, separated graphene sheets, which are referred to as microwave-enabled low-oxygen graphene, are thermally stable and highly conductive without requiring further reduction. Even in the absence of polymeric or surfactant stabilizers, concentrated dispersions of graphene with clean and well-separated graphene sheets can be obtained in both aqueous and organic solvents. This rapid and scalable approach produces high-quality graphene sheets of low oxygen content, enabling a broad spectrum of applications via low-cost solution processing.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84859328846&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84859328846&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/ja210725p

DO - 10.1021/ja210725p

M3 - Article

VL - 134

SP - 5850

EP - 5856

JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society

JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society

SN - 0002-7863

IS - 13

ER -