This article reports on the reaction of bone to a new family of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite biomaterials with crystal sizes similar to those of human bone. Pure nanoapatite cylinders and organoapatite cylinders containing a synthetic nanopeptide were analyzed 28 days after implantation into the spongy bone of Chinchilla rabbits. The experimental techniques used for analysis were light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Both implant types were well incorporated, and interface events were found to be similar to those observed on human bone surfaces with regard to resorption by osteoclast-like cells and bone formation by osteoblasts. Different types of giant cells were observed resorbing the outermost surfaces of implants. There seemed to be both dissolution of the implant and particulate biodegradation leading to less dense implant regions near the interface, whereas the bulk of the implants remained denser. Transmission electron micrographs revealed that bone bonding occurred with and without an afibrillar intervening layer. Given the biologic reaction observed, these implant materials should be suitable for bone replacement and the organoapatite form could be useful for additional functions such as the release of drugs and optimized release of antibiotics, growth factors, or other substances. The organic component can also be used to control physical properties in a bony implantation bed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering