Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are promising semiconductors with tailorable optical and electronic properties. The choice of A-site cation to support a three-dimensional (3D) perovskite structure AMX3 (where M is a metal and X is a halide) is limited by the geometric Goldschmidt tolerance factor. However, this geometric constraint can be relaxed in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites, providing us an opportunity to understand how various A-site cations modulate the structural properties and thereby the optoelectronic properties. Here, we report the synthesis and structures of single-crystal (BA)2(A)Pb2I7 where BA = butylammonium and A = methylammonium (MA), formamidinium (FA), dimethylammonium (DMA), or guanidinium (GA), with a series of A-site cations varying in size. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the MA, FA, and GA structures crystallize in the same Cmcm space group, while the DMA imposes the Ccmb space group. We observe that as the A-site cation becomes larger, the Pb-I bond continuously elongates, expanding the volume of the perovskite cage, equivalent to exerting "negative pressure"on the perovskite structures. Optical studies and DFT calculations show that the Pb-I bond length elongation reduces the overlap of the Pb s-and I p-orbitals and increases the optical bandgap, while Pb-I-Pb tilting angles play a secondary role. Raman spectra show lattice softening with increasing size of the A-site cation. These structural changes with enlarged A cations result in significant decreases in photoluminescence intensity and lifetime, consistent with a more pronounced nonradiative decay. Transient absorption microscopy results suggest that the PL drop may derive from a higher concentration of traps or phonon-assisted nonradiative recombination. The results highlight that extending the range of Goldschmidt tolerance factors for 2D perovskites is achievable, enabling further tuning of the structure-property relationships in 2D perovskites.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry