Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT

PCBM based devices

Matthew O. Reese, Anthony J. Morfa, Matthew S. White, Nikos Kopidakis, Sean E. Shaheen, Gary Rumbles, David S. Ginley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

193 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report on studies of device degradation in organic photovoltaic devices based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Since delamination, oxidation, and chemical interactions at the metal electrode/organic interface have long been posited as degradation pathways in organic electronic devices, we first investigated the stability of a variety of electrodes for devices stored in an inert, dark environment. Second, a set of experiments was designed to separate the effects at the metal/organic interface from the degradation of the active layer or the hole extraction interface. To do this, Ca/Al electrodes were deposited to complete half of a substrate's devices, and samples were left both under constant illumination and 10% illumination (10% duty cycle of 1 sun illumination) in a glovebox environment. After more than 200 h of measurement, additional electrodes were deposited and device performance of each set was compared. Third, to assess the degree of degradation caused by photo-induced processes, device stability in an inert atmosphere under constant illumination, and 10% illumination conditions was also investigated. Last, various degradation mitigation strategies in air under constant illumination were explored. The results showed that the active layer itself is not inherently unstable on the timescales studied here. Choosing the appropriate electrode (Ca/Al) reduced interfacial degradation, storing the active layer in an inert, dark environment did not cause significant degradation, and storing the active layer under constant illumination caused only a limited reduction in performance. Our results indicate that the metal/organic interface can be a significant source of degradation in the devices, and we discuss approaches that could reduce this instability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)746-752
Number of pages7
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume92
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2008

Fingerprint

Butyric acid
Butyric Acid
Esters
Lighting
Degradation
Electrodes
Metals
poly(3-hexylthiophene)
Delamination
Sun
Oxidation
Substrates
Air

Keywords

  • Degradation
  • Electrode
  • Metal organic surface
  • Organic photovoltaic
  • Stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Reese, M. O., Morfa, A. J., White, M. S., Kopidakis, N., Shaheen, S. E., Rumbles, G., & Ginley, D. S. (2008). Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT: PCBM based devices. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 92(7), 746-752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2008.01.020

Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT : PCBM based devices. / Reese, Matthew O.; Morfa, Anthony J.; White, Matthew S.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Shaheen, Sean E.; Rumbles, Gary; Ginley, David S.

In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 92, No. 7, 07.2008, p. 746-752.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reese, Matthew O. ; Morfa, Anthony J. ; White, Matthew S. ; Kopidakis, Nikos ; Shaheen, Sean E. ; Rumbles, Gary ; Ginley, David S. / Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT : PCBM based devices. In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2008 ; Vol. 92, No. 7. pp. 746-752.
@article{5a9fdc0647e340e887f29e73098d8b84,
title = "Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT: PCBM based devices",
abstract = "We report on studies of device degradation in organic photovoltaic devices based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Since delamination, oxidation, and chemical interactions at the metal electrode/organic interface have long been posited as degradation pathways in organic electronic devices, we first investigated the stability of a variety of electrodes for devices stored in an inert, dark environment. Second, a set of experiments was designed to separate the effects at the metal/organic interface from the degradation of the active layer or the hole extraction interface. To do this, Ca/Al electrodes were deposited to complete half of a substrate's devices, and samples were left both under constant illumination and 10{\%} illumination (10{\%} duty cycle of 1 sun illumination) in a glovebox environment. After more than 200 h of measurement, additional electrodes were deposited and device performance of each set was compared. Third, to assess the degree of degradation caused by photo-induced processes, device stability in an inert atmosphere under constant illumination, and 10{\%} illumination conditions was also investigated. Last, various degradation mitigation strategies in air under constant illumination were explored. The results showed that the active layer itself is not inherently unstable on the timescales studied here. Choosing the appropriate electrode (Ca/Al) reduced interfacial degradation, storing the active layer in an inert, dark environment did not cause significant degradation, and storing the active layer under constant illumination caused only a limited reduction in performance. Our results indicate that the metal/organic interface can be a significant source of degradation in the devices, and we discuss approaches that could reduce this instability.",
keywords = "Degradation, Electrode, Metal organic surface, Organic photovoltaic, Stability",
author = "Reese, {Matthew O.} and Morfa, {Anthony J.} and White, {Matthew S.} and Nikos Kopidakis and Shaheen, {Sean E.} and Gary Rumbles and Ginley, {David S.}",
year = "2008",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1016/j.solmat.2008.01.020",
language = "English",
volume = "92",
pages = "746--752",
journal = "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells",
issn = "0927-0248",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT

T2 - PCBM based devices

AU - Reese, Matthew O.

AU - Morfa, Anthony J.

AU - White, Matthew S.

AU - Kopidakis, Nikos

AU - Shaheen, Sean E.

AU - Rumbles, Gary

AU - Ginley, David S.

PY - 2008/7

Y1 - 2008/7

N2 - We report on studies of device degradation in organic photovoltaic devices based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Since delamination, oxidation, and chemical interactions at the metal electrode/organic interface have long been posited as degradation pathways in organic electronic devices, we first investigated the stability of a variety of electrodes for devices stored in an inert, dark environment. Second, a set of experiments was designed to separate the effects at the metal/organic interface from the degradation of the active layer or the hole extraction interface. To do this, Ca/Al electrodes were deposited to complete half of a substrate's devices, and samples were left both under constant illumination and 10% illumination (10% duty cycle of 1 sun illumination) in a glovebox environment. After more than 200 h of measurement, additional electrodes were deposited and device performance of each set was compared. Third, to assess the degree of degradation caused by photo-induced processes, device stability in an inert atmosphere under constant illumination, and 10% illumination conditions was also investigated. Last, various degradation mitigation strategies in air under constant illumination were explored. The results showed that the active layer itself is not inherently unstable on the timescales studied here. Choosing the appropriate electrode (Ca/Al) reduced interfacial degradation, storing the active layer in an inert, dark environment did not cause significant degradation, and storing the active layer under constant illumination caused only a limited reduction in performance. Our results indicate that the metal/organic interface can be a significant source of degradation in the devices, and we discuss approaches that could reduce this instability.

AB - We report on studies of device degradation in organic photovoltaic devices based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Since delamination, oxidation, and chemical interactions at the metal electrode/organic interface have long been posited as degradation pathways in organic electronic devices, we first investigated the stability of a variety of electrodes for devices stored in an inert, dark environment. Second, a set of experiments was designed to separate the effects at the metal/organic interface from the degradation of the active layer or the hole extraction interface. To do this, Ca/Al electrodes were deposited to complete half of a substrate's devices, and samples were left both under constant illumination and 10% illumination (10% duty cycle of 1 sun illumination) in a glovebox environment. After more than 200 h of measurement, additional electrodes were deposited and device performance of each set was compared. Third, to assess the degree of degradation caused by photo-induced processes, device stability in an inert atmosphere under constant illumination, and 10% illumination conditions was also investigated. Last, various degradation mitigation strategies in air under constant illumination were explored. The results showed that the active layer itself is not inherently unstable on the timescales studied here. Choosing the appropriate electrode (Ca/Al) reduced interfacial degradation, storing the active layer in an inert, dark environment did not cause significant degradation, and storing the active layer under constant illumination caused only a limited reduction in performance. Our results indicate that the metal/organic interface can be a significant source of degradation in the devices, and we discuss approaches that could reduce this instability.

KW - Degradation

KW - Electrode

KW - Metal organic surface

KW - Organic photovoltaic

KW - Stability

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=42049114243&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=42049114243&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.solmat.2008.01.020

DO - 10.1016/j.solmat.2008.01.020

M3 - Article

VL - 92

SP - 746

EP - 752

JO - Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

JF - Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

SN - 0927-0248

IS - 7

ER -