Powering the planet

Chemical challenges in solar energy utilization

Nathan S Lewis, Daniel G. Nocera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4497 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Global energy consumption is projected to increase, even in the face of substantial declines in energy intensity, at least 2-fold by midcentury relative to the present because of population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere demands that holding atmospheric CO2 levels to even twice their preanthropogenic values by midcentury will require invention, development, and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable energy resources, solar energy is by far the largest exploitable resource, providing more energy in 1 hour to the earth than all of the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. In view of the intermittency of insolation, if solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, it must be stored and dispatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar-converted energy in the form of chemical bonds, i.e., in a photosynthetic process at a year-round average efficiency significantly higher than current plants or algae, to reduce land-area requirements. Scientific challenges involved with this process include schemes to capture and convert solar energy and then store the energy in the form of chemical bonds, producing oxygen from water and a reduced fuel such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, or other hydrocarbon species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15729-15735
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume103
Issue number43
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 24 2006

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Solar Energy
Planets
Renewable Energy
Fossils
Economic Development
Coal
Population Growth
Methane
Hydrocarbons
Atmosphere
Methanol
Hydrogen
Carbon
Oxygen
Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General

Cite this

Powering the planet : Chemical challenges in solar energy utilization. / Lewis, Nathan S; Nocera, Daniel G.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 103, No. 43, 24.10.2006, p. 15729-15735.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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