Probing Out-of-Plane Charge Transport in Black Phosphorus with Graphene-Contacted Vertical Field-Effect Transistors

Junmo Kang, Deep Jariwala, Christopher R. Ryder, Spencer A. Wells, Yongsuk Choi, Euyheon Hwang, Jeong Ho Cho, Tobin J Marks, Mark C Hersam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

58 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising narrow band gap layered semiconductor with optoelectronic properties that bridge the gap between semimetallic graphene and wide band gap transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2. To date, BP field-effect transistors have utilized a lateral geometry with in-plane transport dominating device characteristics. In contrast, we present here a vertical field-effect transistor geometry based on a graphene/BP van der Waals heterostructure. The resulting device characteristics include high on-state current densities (>1600 A/cm2) and current on/off ratios exceeding 800 at low temperature. Two distinct charge transport mechanisms are identified, which are dominant for different regimes of temperature and gate voltage. In particular, the Schottky barrier between graphene and BP determines charge transport at high temperatures and positive gate voltages, whereas tunneling dominates at low temperatures and negative gate voltages. These results elucidate out-of-plane electronic transport in BP and thus have implications for the design and operation of BP-based van der Waals heterostructures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2580-2585
Number of pages6
JournalNano Letters
Volume16
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 13 2016

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Field effect transistors
Phosphorus
Graphene
phosphorus
Charge transfer
graphene
field effect transistors
Heterojunctions
Electric potential
electric potential
Temperature
Geometry
geometry
Optoelectronic devices
Transition metals
narrowband
Energy gap
Current density
transition metals

Keywords

  • heterostructure
  • Phosphorene
  • Schottky barrier
  • short channel
  • van der Waals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Probing Out-of-Plane Charge Transport in Black Phosphorus with Graphene-Contacted Vertical Field-Effect Transistors. / Kang, Junmo; Jariwala, Deep; Ryder, Christopher R.; Wells, Spencer A.; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Cho, Jeong Ho; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C.

In: Nano Letters, Vol. 16, No. 4, 13.04.2016, p. 2580-2585.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kang, Junmo ; Jariwala, Deep ; Ryder, Christopher R. ; Wells, Spencer A. ; Choi, Yongsuk ; Hwang, Euyheon ; Cho, Jeong Ho ; Marks, Tobin J ; Hersam, Mark C. / Probing Out-of-Plane Charge Transport in Black Phosphorus with Graphene-Contacted Vertical Field-Effect Transistors. In: Nano Letters. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 4. pp. 2580-2585.
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