Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water

N. Sano, H. Wang, I. Alexandrou, Manish Chhowalla, K. B K Teo, G. A J Amaratunga, K. Iimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

272 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A simple method to fabricate high-quality nanoparticles including spherical carbon onions and elongated fullerene-like nanoparticles similar to nanotubes in large quantities without the use of vacuum equipment is reported. The nanoparticles are obtained in the form of floating powder on the water surface following an arc discharge between two graphite electrodes submerged in water. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirm the presence of spherical carbon onions with diameters ranging from 4 to 36 nm. The specific surface area of the floating powder was found to be very large, 984.3 m 2/g, indicating that the material is promising for gas storage. From the surface area measurements, the mean particle diameter was calculated to be 3.7 nm. This value is close to the lower limit of the carbon onions observed in HRTEM. However, closer HRTEM observations also reveal that some carbon onions are not well crystallized. The large specific surface area can be attributed to the "surface roughness" induced by the defective nature of the carbon onion shells. To explain the formation mechanism of the carbon onions, a model of arc discharge in water with two quenching zones is proposed: (1) the presence of ion current conducive for elongated nanoparticles growth and (2) the absence of ion current for isotropic growth of carbon onions. Based on this model, we propose that the physical characteristics of the product can be controlled.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2783-2788
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume92
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2002

Fingerprint

arc discharges
carbon
water
nanoparticles
floating
ion currents
transmission electron microscopy
high resolution
surface water
fullerenes
nanotubes
surface roughness
graphite
quenching
vacuum
scanning electron microscopy
electrodes
products
gases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Sano, N., Wang, H., Alexandrou, I., Chhowalla, M., Teo, K. B. K., Amaratunga, G. A. J., & Iimura, K. (2002). Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water. Journal of Applied Physics, 92(5), 2783-2788. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1498884

Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water. / Sano, N.; Wang, H.; Alexandrou, I.; Chhowalla, Manish; Teo, K. B K; Amaratunga, G. A J; Iimura, K.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 92, No. 5, 01.09.2002, p. 2783-2788.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sano, N, Wang, H, Alexandrou, I, Chhowalla, M, Teo, KBK, Amaratunga, GAJ & Iimura, K 2002, 'Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 2783-2788. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1498884
Sano N, Wang H, Alexandrou I, Chhowalla M, Teo KBK, Amaratunga GAJ et al. Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water. Journal of Applied Physics. 2002 Sep 1;92(5):2783-2788. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1498884
Sano, N. ; Wang, H. ; Alexandrou, I. ; Chhowalla, Manish ; Teo, K. B K ; Amaratunga, G. A J ; Iimura, K. / Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 2002 ; Vol. 92, No. 5. pp. 2783-2788.
@article{e0296e5469e14f6086c395ac2209aa03,
title = "Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water",
abstract = "A simple method to fabricate high-quality nanoparticles including spherical carbon onions and elongated fullerene-like nanoparticles similar to nanotubes in large quantities without the use of vacuum equipment is reported. The nanoparticles are obtained in the form of floating powder on the water surface following an arc discharge between two graphite electrodes submerged in water. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirm the presence of spherical carbon onions with diameters ranging from 4 to 36 nm. The specific surface area of the floating powder was found to be very large, 984.3 m 2/g, indicating that the material is promising for gas storage. From the surface area measurements, the mean particle diameter was calculated to be 3.7 nm. This value is close to the lower limit of the carbon onions observed in HRTEM. However, closer HRTEM observations also reveal that some carbon onions are not well crystallized. The large specific surface area can be attributed to the {"}surface roughness{"} induced by the defective nature of the carbon onion shells. To explain the formation mechanism of the carbon onions, a model of arc discharge in water with two quenching zones is proposed: (1) the presence of ion current conducive for elongated nanoparticles growth and (2) the absence of ion current for isotropic growth of carbon onions. Based on this model, we propose that the physical characteristics of the product can be controlled.",
author = "N. Sano and H. Wang and I. Alexandrou and Manish Chhowalla and Teo, {K. B K} and Amaratunga, {G. A J} and K. Iimura",
year = "2002",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1063/1.1498884",
language = "English",
volume = "92",
pages = "2783--2788",
journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
issn = "0021-8979",
publisher = "American Institute of Physics Publising LLC",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Properties of carbon onions produced by an arc discharge in water

AU - Sano, N.

AU - Wang, H.

AU - Alexandrou, I.

AU - Chhowalla, Manish

AU - Teo, K. B K

AU - Amaratunga, G. A J

AU - Iimura, K.

PY - 2002/9/1

Y1 - 2002/9/1

N2 - A simple method to fabricate high-quality nanoparticles including spherical carbon onions and elongated fullerene-like nanoparticles similar to nanotubes in large quantities without the use of vacuum equipment is reported. The nanoparticles are obtained in the form of floating powder on the water surface following an arc discharge between two graphite electrodes submerged in water. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirm the presence of spherical carbon onions with diameters ranging from 4 to 36 nm. The specific surface area of the floating powder was found to be very large, 984.3 m 2/g, indicating that the material is promising for gas storage. From the surface area measurements, the mean particle diameter was calculated to be 3.7 nm. This value is close to the lower limit of the carbon onions observed in HRTEM. However, closer HRTEM observations also reveal that some carbon onions are not well crystallized. The large specific surface area can be attributed to the "surface roughness" induced by the defective nature of the carbon onion shells. To explain the formation mechanism of the carbon onions, a model of arc discharge in water with two quenching zones is proposed: (1) the presence of ion current conducive for elongated nanoparticles growth and (2) the absence of ion current for isotropic growth of carbon onions. Based on this model, we propose that the physical characteristics of the product can be controlled.

AB - A simple method to fabricate high-quality nanoparticles including spherical carbon onions and elongated fullerene-like nanoparticles similar to nanotubes in large quantities without the use of vacuum equipment is reported. The nanoparticles are obtained in the form of floating powder on the water surface following an arc discharge between two graphite electrodes submerged in water. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirm the presence of spherical carbon onions with diameters ranging from 4 to 36 nm. The specific surface area of the floating powder was found to be very large, 984.3 m 2/g, indicating that the material is promising for gas storage. From the surface area measurements, the mean particle diameter was calculated to be 3.7 nm. This value is close to the lower limit of the carbon onions observed in HRTEM. However, closer HRTEM observations also reveal that some carbon onions are not well crystallized. The large specific surface area can be attributed to the "surface roughness" induced by the defective nature of the carbon onion shells. To explain the formation mechanism of the carbon onions, a model of arc discharge in water with two quenching zones is proposed: (1) the presence of ion current conducive for elongated nanoparticles growth and (2) the absence of ion current for isotropic growth of carbon onions. Based on this model, we propose that the physical characteristics of the product can be controlled.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036733897&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036733897&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1063/1.1498884

DO - 10.1063/1.1498884

M3 - Article

VL - 92

SP - 2783

EP - 2788

JO - Journal of Applied Physics

JF - Journal of Applied Physics

SN - 0021-8979

IS - 5

ER -