Revealing molecular-level surface redox sites of controllably oxidized black phosphorus nanosheets

Puritut Nakhanivej, Xu Yu, Sul Ki Park, Soo Kim, Jin Yong Hong, Hae Jin Kim, Wonki Lee, Jun Yeon Hwang, Ji Eun Yang, Chris Wolverton, Jing Kong, Manish Chhowalla, Ho Seok Park

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24 Citations (Scopus)


Bulk and two-dimensional black phosphorus are considered to be promising battery materials due to their high theoretical capacities of 2,600 mAh g−1. However, their rate and cycling capabilities are limited by the intrinsic (de-)alloying mechanism. Here, we demonstrate a unique surface redox molecular-level mechanism of P sites on oxidized black phosphorus nanosheets that are strongly coupled with graphene via strong interlayer bonding. These redox-active sites of the oxidized black phosphorus are confined at the amorphorized heterointerface, revealing truly reversible pseudocapacitance (99% of total stored charge at 2,000 mV s−1). Moreover, oxidized black-phosphorus-based electrodes exhibit a capacitance of 478 F g–1 (four times greater than black phosphorus) with a rate capability of ~72% (compared to 21.2% for black phosphorus) and retention of ~91% over 50,000 cycles. In situ spectroelectrochemical and theoretical analyses reveal a reversible change in the surface electronic structure and chemical environment of the surface-exposed P redox sites.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Materials
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Nakhanivej, P., Yu, X., Park, S. K., Kim, S., Hong, J. Y., Kim, H. J., Lee, W., Hwang, J. Y., Yang, J. E., Wolverton, C., Kong, J., Chhowalla, M., & Park, H. S. (Accepted/In press). Revealing molecular-level surface redox sites of controllably oxidized black phosphorus nanosheets. Nature Materials.