Scanning Probe Nanopatterning and Layer-by-Layer Thinning of Black Phosphorus

Xiaolong Liu, Kan Sheng Chen, Spencer A. Wells, Itamar Balla, Jian Zhu, Joshua D. Wood, Mark C. Hersam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Researchers take advantage of the high spatial resolution of scanning probe nanolithography and the tendency of black phosphorus (BP) to oxidize in ambient conditions to realize lateral nanopatterning and layer-by-layer thinning of BP using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). In particular, layer-by-layer thinning of BP is achieved through direct current (DC) local anodic oxidation in a manner analogous to silicon and grapheme. This process generates liquid-like patterning byproducts, which are identified as phosphorus oxoacids by Raman spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS).

Original languageEnglish
Article number1604121
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017


  • 2D
  • conductive atomic force microscopy
  • nanolithography
  • phosphorene
  • phosphorus oxide
  • transistors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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