Reducing the dimensionality of three-dimensional hybrid metal halide perovskites can improve their optoelectronic properties. Here, we show that the third-order optical nonlinearity, n 2, of hybrid lead iodide perovskites is enhanced in the two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper series, (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3) n-1Pb n I3n+1 (n = 1-4), where the layer number (n) is engineered for bandgap tuning from E g = 1.60 eV (n = ∞; bulk) to 2.40 eV (n = 1). Despite the unfavorable relation, n2 ∝ Eg -4, strong quantum confinement causes these two-dimensional perovskites to exhibit four times stronger third harmonic generation at mid-infrared when compared with the three-dimensional counterpart, (CH3NH3)PbI3. Surprisingly, however, the impact of dimensional reduction on two-photon absorption, which is the Kramers-Kronig conjugate of n 2, is rather insignificant as demonstrated by broadband two-photon spectroscopy. The concomitant increase of bandgap and optical nonlinearity is truly remarkable in these novel perovskites, where the former increases the laser-induced damage threshold for high-power nonlinear optical applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)