Selective removal of Cs+, Sr2+, and Ni2+ by K2xMgxSn3-xS6 (x = 0.5-1) (KMS-2) relevant to nuclear waste remediation

Joshua L. Mertz, Zohreh Hassanzadeh Fard, Christos D. Malliakas, Manolis J. Manos, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

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133 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

137Cs and 90Sr, both byproducts of the uranium and plutonium fission processes, make up the majority of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. 63Ni is a byproduct of the erosion-corrosion process of the reactor components in nuclear energy plants. The concentrations of these ions in solution determine the Waste Class (A, B, or C); thus, their selective removal in the presence of large excesses of nonradioactive ions is necessary to reduce waste volume and cut disposal costs. We report the new material K2xMgxSn3-xS6 (x = 0.5-1, KMS-2) and its application for the ion exchange of Cs+, Sr 2+, and Ni2+ in varying conditions. This compound crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P63/mmc with cell parameters a = b = 3.6749(8) Å and c = 16.827(4) Å. The difference in crystal structure between KMS-2, the previously reported Mn analog K 2xMnxSn3-xS6 (KMS-1), and their parent SnS2 is also described. Distribution coefficients for KMS-2 are high for Cs+ (7.1 × 103 mL/g) and Sr 2+ (2.1 × 104 mL/g) at neutral pH (∼ 6 ppm, V/m ∼1000 mL/g). We also report on the comparative study of Ni2+ ion exchange with both KMS-1 and KMS-2. Additional competitive reactions using Cs+, Sr2+, and Ni2+ in high concentrations of salt solution and at different pH values are reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2116-2127
Number of pages12
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume25
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 28 2013

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Keywords

  • absorption
  • cesium
  • chalcogenide
  • ion-exchange
  • nuclear waste
  • radioactive waste
  • strontium
  • waste management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

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