Two terrylene chromophores, 2,5,10,13-tetra(tert-butyl)terrylene (1) and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)terrylene (2), were synthesized and studied to determine their singlet exciton fission (SF) efficiencies. Compound 1 crystallizes in one-dimensional stacks, whereas 2 packs in a slip-stacked, herringbone pattern of dimers motif. Strongly quenched fluorescence and rapid singlet exciton decay dynamics are observed in vapor-deposited thin films of 1 and 2. Phosphorescence measurements on thin films of 1 and 2 show that SF is only 70 meV endoergic for these chromophores. Femtosecond transient absorption experiments using low laser fluences on these films reveal rapid triplet exciton formation for both 1 (τ = 120 ± 10 ps) and 2 (τ = 320 ± 20 ps) that depends strongly on film crystallinity. The transient absorption data are consistent with formation of an excimer state prior to SF. Triplet exciton yield measurements indicate nearly quantitative SF in thin films of both chromophores in highly crystalline solvent-vapor-annealed films: 170 ± 20% for 1 and 200 ± 30% for 2. These results show that significantly different crystal morphologies of the same chromophore can both result in high-efficiency SF provided that the energetics are favorable.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry