Small Molecule Acceptor and Polymer Donor Crystallinity and Aggregation Effects on Microstructure Templating: Understanding Photovoltaic Response in Fullerene-Free Solar Cells

Nicholas D. Eastham, Alexander S. Dudnik, Thomas J. Aldrich, Eric F. Manley, Thomas J. Fauvell, Patrick E. Hartnett, Michael R Wasielewski, Lin X. Chen, Ferdinand S. Melkonyan, Antonio Facchetti, Robert P. H. Chang, Tobin J Marks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Perylenediimide (PDI) small molecule acceptor (SMA) crystallinity and donor polymer aggregation and crystallinity effects on bulk-heterojunction microstructure and polymer solar cell (PSC) performance are systematically investigated. Two high-performance polymers, semicrystalline poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6(5H)-dione-1,3-yl-alt-4,4″dodecyl-2,2′:5′,2″-terthiophene-5,5″-diyl] (PTPD3T or D1) and amorphous poly{4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl) (PBDTT-FTTE or D2), are paired with three PDI-based SMAs (A1-A3) of differing crystallinity (A1 is the most, A3 is the least crystalline). The resulting PSC performance trends are strikingly different from those of typical fullerene-based PSCs and are highly material-dependent. The present trends reflect synergistic aggregation propensities between the SMA and polymer components. Importantly, the active layer morphology is templated by the PDI in some blends and by the polymer in others, with the latter largely governed by the polymer aggregation. Thus, PTPD3T templating capacity increases as self-aggregation increases (greater Mn), optimizing PSC performance with A2, while A3-based cells exhibit an inverse relationship between polymer aggregation and performance, which is dramatically different from fullerene-based PSCs. For PBDTT-FTTE, A2-based cells again deliver the highest PCEs of ∼5%, but here both A2 and PBDTT-FTTE (medium Mn) template the morphology. Overall, the present results underscore the importance of nonfullerene acceptor aggregation for optimizing PSC performance and offer guidelines for pairing SMAs with acceptable donor polymers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4432-4444
Number of pages13
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume29
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 23 2017

Fingerprint

Fullerenes
Solar cells
Polymers
Agglomeration
Microstructure
Molecules
Pyrroles
Thiophene
Heterojunctions
Crystalline materials
Polymer solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Small Molecule Acceptor and Polymer Donor Crystallinity and Aggregation Effects on Microstructure Templating : Understanding Photovoltaic Response in Fullerene-Free Solar Cells. / Eastham, Nicholas D.; Dudnik, Alexander S.; Aldrich, Thomas J.; Manley, Eric F.; Fauvell, Thomas J.; Hartnett, Patrick E.; Wasielewski, Michael R; Chen, Lin X.; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S.; Facchetti, Antonio; Chang, Robert P. H.; Marks, Tobin J.

In: Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 29, No. 10, 23.05.2017, p. 4432-4444.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Eastham, Nicholas D. ; Dudnik, Alexander S. ; Aldrich, Thomas J. ; Manley, Eric F. ; Fauvell, Thomas J. ; Hartnett, Patrick E. ; Wasielewski, Michael R ; Chen, Lin X. ; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. ; Facchetti, Antonio ; Chang, Robert P. H. ; Marks, Tobin J. / Small Molecule Acceptor and Polymer Donor Crystallinity and Aggregation Effects on Microstructure Templating : Understanding Photovoltaic Response in Fullerene-Free Solar Cells. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2017 ; Vol. 29, No. 10. pp. 4432-4444.
@article{2e63583ec052465192bb99e75b51b7cf,
title = "Small Molecule Acceptor and Polymer Donor Crystallinity and Aggregation Effects on Microstructure Templating: Understanding Photovoltaic Response in Fullerene-Free Solar Cells",
abstract = "Perylenediimide (PDI) small molecule acceptor (SMA) crystallinity and donor polymer aggregation and crystallinity effects on bulk-heterojunction microstructure and polymer solar cell (PSC) performance are systematically investigated. Two high-performance polymers, semicrystalline poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6(5H)-dione-1,3-yl-alt-4,4″dodecyl-2,2′:5′,2″-terthiophene-5,5″-diyl] (PTPD3T or D1) and amorphous poly{4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl) (PBDTT-FTTE or D2), are paired with three PDI-based SMAs (A1-A3) of differing crystallinity (A1 is the most, A3 is the least crystalline). The resulting PSC performance trends are strikingly different from those of typical fullerene-based PSCs and are highly material-dependent. The present trends reflect synergistic aggregation propensities between the SMA and polymer components. Importantly, the active layer morphology is templated by the PDI in some blends and by the polymer in others, with the latter largely governed by the polymer aggregation. Thus, PTPD3T templating capacity increases as self-aggregation increases (greater Mn), optimizing PSC performance with A2, while A3-based cells exhibit an inverse relationship between polymer aggregation and performance, which is dramatically different from fullerene-based PSCs. For PBDTT-FTTE, A2-based cells again deliver the highest PCEs of ∼5{\%}, but here both A2 and PBDTT-FTTE (medium Mn) template the morphology. Overall, the present results underscore the importance of nonfullerene acceptor aggregation for optimizing PSC performance and offer guidelines for pairing SMAs with acceptable donor polymers.",
author = "Eastham, {Nicholas D.} and Dudnik, {Alexander S.} and Aldrich, {Thomas J.} and Manley, {Eric F.} and Fauvell, {Thomas J.} and Hartnett, {Patrick E.} and Wasielewski, {Michael R} and Chen, {Lin X.} and Melkonyan, {Ferdinand S.} and Antonio Facchetti and Chang, {Robert P. H.} and Marks, {Tobin J}",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00964",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "4432--4444",
journal = "Chemistry of Materials",
issn = "0897-4756",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Small Molecule Acceptor and Polymer Donor Crystallinity and Aggregation Effects on Microstructure Templating

T2 - Understanding Photovoltaic Response in Fullerene-Free Solar Cells

AU - Eastham, Nicholas D.

AU - Dudnik, Alexander S.

AU - Aldrich, Thomas J.

AU - Manley, Eric F.

AU - Fauvell, Thomas J.

AU - Hartnett, Patrick E.

AU - Wasielewski, Michael R

AU - Chen, Lin X.

AU - Melkonyan, Ferdinand S.

AU - Facchetti, Antonio

AU - Chang, Robert P. H.

AU - Marks, Tobin J

PY - 2017/5/23

Y1 - 2017/5/23

N2 - Perylenediimide (PDI) small molecule acceptor (SMA) crystallinity and donor polymer aggregation and crystallinity effects on bulk-heterojunction microstructure and polymer solar cell (PSC) performance are systematically investigated. Two high-performance polymers, semicrystalline poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6(5H)-dione-1,3-yl-alt-4,4″dodecyl-2,2′:5′,2″-terthiophene-5,5″-diyl] (PTPD3T or D1) and amorphous poly{4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl) (PBDTT-FTTE or D2), are paired with three PDI-based SMAs (A1-A3) of differing crystallinity (A1 is the most, A3 is the least crystalline). The resulting PSC performance trends are strikingly different from those of typical fullerene-based PSCs and are highly material-dependent. The present trends reflect synergistic aggregation propensities between the SMA and polymer components. Importantly, the active layer morphology is templated by the PDI in some blends and by the polymer in others, with the latter largely governed by the polymer aggregation. Thus, PTPD3T templating capacity increases as self-aggregation increases (greater Mn), optimizing PSC performance with A2, while A3-based cells exhibit an inverse relationship between polymer aggregation and performance, which is dramatically different from fullerene-based PSCs. For PBDTT-FTTE, A2-based cells again deliver the highest PCEs of ∼5%, but here both A2 and PBDTT-FTTE (medium Mn) template the morphology. Overall, the present results underscore the importance of nonfullerene acceptor aggregation for optimizing PSC performance and offer guidelines for pairing SMAs with acceptable donor polymers.

AB - Perylenediimide (PDI) small molecule acceptor (SMA) crystallinity and donor polymer aggregation and crystallinity effects on bulk-heterojunction microstructure and polymer solar cell (PSC) performance are systematically investigated. Two high-performance polymers, semicrystalline poly[5-(2-hexyldodecyl)-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6(5H)-dione-1,3-yl-alt-4,4″dodecyl-2,2′:5′,2″-terthiophene-5,5″-diyl] (PTPD3T or D1) and amorphous poly{4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl) (PBDTT-FTTE or D2), are paired with three PDI-based SMAs (A1-A3) of differing crystallinity (A1 is the most, A3 is the least crystalline). The resulting PSC performance trends are strikingly different from those of typical fullerene-based PSCs and are highly material-dependent. The present trends reflect synergistic aggregation propensities between the SMA and polymer components. Importantly, the active layer morphology is templated by the PDI in some blends and by the polymer in others, with the latter largely governed by the polymer aggregation. Thus, PTPD3T templating capacity increases as self-aggregation increases (greater Mn), optimizing PSC performance with A2, while A3-based cells exhibit an inverse relationship between polymer aggregation and performance, which is dramatically different from fullerene-based PSCs. For PBDTT-FTTE, A2-based cells again deliver the highest PCEs of ∼5%, but here both A2 and PBDTT-FTTE (medium Mn) template the morphology. Overall, the present results underscore the importance of nonfullerene acceptor aggregation for optimizing PSC performance and offer guidelines for pairing SMAs with acceptable donor polymers.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85019734596&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85019734596&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00964

DO - 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00964

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85019734596

VL - 29

SP - 4432

EP - 4444

JO - Chemistry of Materials

JF - Chemistry of Materials

SN - 0897-4756

IS - 10

ER -