Solution-Based Processing of Monodisperse Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials

Joohoon Kang, Vinod K. Sangwan, Joshua D. Wood, Mark C Hersam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Conspectus Exfoliation of single-layer graphene from bulk graphite and the subsequent discovery of exotic physics and emergent phenomena in the atomically thin limit has motivated the isolation of other two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials. Early work on isolated 2D nanomaterial flakes has revealed a broad range of unique physical and chemical properties with potential utility in diverse applications. For example, the electronic and optical properties of 2D nanomaterials depend strongly on atomic-scale variations in thickness, enabling enhanced performance in optoelectronic technologies such as light emitters, photodetectors, and photovoltaics. Much of the initial research on 2D nanomaterials has relied on micromechanical exfoliation, which yields high-quality 2D nanomaterial flakes that are suitable for fundamental studies but possesses limited scalability for real-world applications. In an effort to overcome this limitation, solution-processing methods for isolating large quantities of 2D nanomaterials have emerged. Importantly, solution processing results in 2D nanomaterial dispersions that are amenable to roll-to-roll fabrication methods that underlie lost-cost manufacturing of thin-film transistors, transparent conductors, energy storage devices, and solar cells. Despite these advantages, solution-based exfoliation methods typically lack control over the lateral size and thickness of the resulting 2D nanomaterial flakes, resulting in polydisperse dispersions with heterogeneous properties. Therefore, post-exfoliation separation techniques are needed to achieve 2D nanomaterial dispersions with monodispersity in lateral size, thickness, and properties. In this Account, we survey the latest developments in solution-based separation methods that aim to produce monodisperse dispersions and thin films of emerging 2D nanomaterials such as graphene, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorus. First, we motivate the need for precise thickness control in 2D nanomaterials by reviewing thickness-dependent physical properties. Then we present a succinct survey of solution-based exfoliation methods that yield 2D nanomaterial dispersions in organic solvents and aqueous media. The Account subsequently focuses on separation methods, including a critical analysis of their relative strengths and weaknesses for 2D nanomaterials with different buoyant densities, van der Waals interactions, and chemical reactivities. Specifically, we evaluate sedimentation-based density gradient ultracentrifugation (sDGU) and isopycnic DGU (iDGU) for post-exfoliation 2D nanomaterial dispersion separation. The comparative advantages of sedimentation and isopycnic methods are presented in both aqueous and nonaqueous media for 2D nanomaterials with varying degrees of chemical reactivity. Finally, we survey methods for forming homogeneous thin films from 2D nanomaterial dispersions and emerging technologies that are likely to benefit from these structures. Overall, this Account provides not only an overview of the present state-of-the-art but also a forward-looking vision for the field of solution-processed monodisperse 2D nanomaterials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)943-951
Number of pages9
JournalAccounts of Chemical Research
Volume50
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 18 2017

Fingerprint

Nanostructured materials
Processing
Dispersions
Graphite
Chemical reactivity
Sedimentation
Physical properties
Thickness control
Thin films
Thin film transistors
Photodetectors
Electronic properties
Optoelectronic devices
Organic solvents
Energy storage
Phosphorus
Chemical properties
Transition metals
Scalability
Solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Solution-Based Processing of Monodisperse Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials. / Kang, Joohoon; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Wood, Joshua D.; Hersam, Mark C.

In: Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 50, No. 4, 18.04.2017, p. 943-951.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kang, Joohoon ; Sangwan, Vinod K. ; Wood, Joshua D. ; Hersam, Mark C. / Solution-Based Processing of Monodisperse Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials. In: Accounts of Chemical Research. 2017 ; Vol. 50, No. 4. pp. 943-951.
@article{aa0508f3d3284e86bebf45fef74ee54d,
title = "Solution-Based Processing of Monodisperse Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials",
abstract = "Conspectus Exfoliation of single-layer graphene from bulk graphite and the subsequent discovery of exotic physics and emergent phenomena in the atomically thin limit has motivated the isolation of other two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials. Early work on isolated 2D nanomaterial flakes has revealed a broad range of unique physical and chemical properties with potential utility in diverse applications. For example, the electronic and optical properties of 2D nanomaterials depend strongly on atomic-scale variations in thickness, enabling enhanced performance in optoelectronic technologies such as light emitters, photodetectors, and photovoltaics. Much of the initial research on 2D nanomaterials has relied on micromechanical exfoliation, which yields high-quality 2D nanomaterial flakes that are suitable for fundamental studies but possesses limited scalability for real-world applications. In an effort to overcome this limitation, solution-processing methods for isolating large quantities of 2D nanomaterials have emerged. Importantly, solution processing results in 2D nanomaterial dispersions that are amenable to roll-to-roll fabrication methods that underlie lost-cost manufacturing of thin-film transistors, transparent conductors, energy storage devices, and solar cells. Despite these advantages, solution-based exfoliation methods typically lack control over the lateral size and thickness of the resulting 2D nanomaterial flakes, resulting in polydisperse dispersions with heterogeneous properties. Therefore, post-exfoliation separation techniques are needed to achieve 2D nanomaterial dispersions with monodispersity in lateral size, thickness, and properties. In this Account, we survey the latest developments in solution-based separation methods that aim to produce monodisperse dispersions and thin films of emerging 2D nanomaterials such as graphene, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorus. First, we motivate the need for precise thickness control in 2D nanomaterials by reviewing thickness-dependent physical properties. Then we present a succinct survey of solution-based exfoliation methods that yield 2D nanomaterial dispersions in organic solvents and aqueous media. The Account subsequently focuses on separation methods, including a critical analysis of their relative strengths and weaknesses for 2D nanomaterials with different buoyant densities, van der Waals interactions, and chemical reactivities. Specifically, we evaluate sedimentation-based density gradient ultracentrifugation (sDGU) and isopycnic DGU (iDGU) for post-exfoliation 2D nanomaterial dispersion separation. The comparative advantages of sedimentation and isopycnic methods are presented in both aqueous and nonaqueous media for 2D nanomaterials with varying degrees of chemical reactivity. Finally, we survey methods for forming homogeneous thin films from 2D nanomaterial dispersions and emerging technologies that are likely to benefit from these structures. Overall, this Account provides not only an overview of the present state-of-the-art but also a forward-looking vision for the field of solution-processed monodisperse 2D nanomaterials.",
author = "Joohoon Kang and Sangwan, {Vinod K.} and Wood, {Joshua D.} and Hersam, {Mark C}",
year = "2017",
month = "4",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00643",
language = "English",
volume = "50",
pages = "943--951",
journal = "Accounts of Chemical Research",
issn = "0001-4842",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Solution-Based Processing of Monodisperse Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials

AU - Kang, Joohoon

AU - Sangwan, Vinod K.

AU - Wood, Joshua D.

AU - Hersam, Mark C

PY - 2017/4/18

Y1 - 2017/4/18

N2 - Conspectus Exfoliation of single-layer graphene from bulk graphite and the subsequent discovery of exotic physics and emergent phenomena in the atomically thin limit has motivated the isolation of other two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials. Early work on isolated 2D nanomaterial flakes has revealed a broad range of unique physical and chemical properties with potential utility in diverse applications. For example, the electronic and optical properties of 2D nanomaterials depend strongly on atomic-scale variations in thickness, enabling enhanced performance in optoelectronic technologies such as light emitters, photodetectors, and photovoltaics. Much of the initial research on 2D nanomaterials has relied on micromechanical exfoliation, which yields high-quality 2D nanomaterial flakes that are suitable for fundamental studies but possesses limited scalability for real-world applications. In an effort to overcome this limitation, solution-processing methods for isolating large quantities of 2D nanomaterials have emerged. Importantly, solution processing results in 2D nanomaterial dispersions that are amenable to roll-to-roll fabrication methods that underlie lost-cost manufacturing of thin-film transistors, transparent conductors, energy storage devices, and solar cells. Despite these advantages, solution-based exfoliation methods typically lack control over the lateral size and thickness of the resulting 2D nanomaterial flakes, resulting in polydisperse dispersions with heterogeneous properties. Therefore, post-exfoliation separation techniques are needed to achieve 2D nanomaterial dispersions with monodispersity in lateral size, thickness, and properties. In this Account, we survey the latest developments in solution-based separation methods that aim to produce monodisperse dispersions and thin films of emerging 2D nanomaterials such as graphene, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorus. First, we motivate the need for precise thickness control in 2D nanomaterials by reviewing thickness-dependent physical properties. Then we present a succinct survey of solution-based exfoliation methods that yield 2D nanomaterial dispersions in organic solvents and aqueous media. The Account subsequently focuses on separation methods, including a critical analysis of their relative strengths and weaknesses for 2D nanomaterials with different buoyant densities, van der Waals interactions, and chemical reactivities. Specifically, we evaluate sedimentation-based density gradient ultracentrifugation (sDGU) and isopycnic DGU (iDGU) for post-exfoliation 2D nanomaterial dispersion separation. The comparative advantages of sedimentation and isopycnic methods are presented in both aqueous and nonaqueous media for 2D nanomaterials with varying degrees of chemical reactivity. Finally, we survey methods for forming homogeneous thin films from 2D nanomaterial dispersions and emerging technologies that are likely to benefit from these structures. Overall, this Account provides not only an overview of the present state-of-the-art but also a forward-looking vision for the field of solution-processed monodisperse 2D nanomaterials.

AB - Conspectus Exfoliation of single-layer graphene from bulk graphite and the subsequent discovery of exotic physics and emergent phenomena in the atomically thin limit has motivated the isolation of other two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials. Early work on isolated 2D nanomaterial flakes has revealed a broad range of unique physical and chemical properties with potential utility in diverse applications. For example, the electronic and optical properties of 2D nanomaterials depend strongly on atomic-scale variations in thickness, enabling enhanced performance in optoelectronic technologies such as light emitters, photodetectors, and photovoltaics. Much of the initial research on 2D nanomaterials has relied on micromechanical exfoliation, which yields high-quality 2D nanomaterial flakes that are suitable for fundamental studies but possesses limited scalability for real-world applications. In an effort to overcome this limitation, solution-processing methods for isolating large quantities of 2D nanomaterials have emerged. Importantly, solution processing results in 2D nanomaterial dispersions that are amenable to roll-to-roll fabrication methods that underlie lost-cost manufacturing of thin-film transistors, transparent conductors, energy storage devices, and solar cells. Despite these advantages, solution-based exfoliation methods typically lack control over the lateral size and thickness of the resulting 2D nanomaterial flakes, resulting in polydisperse dispersions with heterogeneous properties. Therefore, post-exfoliation separation techniques are needed to achieve 2D nanomaterial dispersions with monodispersity in lateral size, thickness, and properties. In this Account, we survey the latest developments in solution-based separation methods that aim to produce monodisperse dispersions and thin films of emerging 2D nanomaterials such as graphene, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorus. First, we motivate the need for precise thickness control in 2D nanomaterials by reviewing thickness-dependent physical properties. Then we present a succinct survey of solution-based exfoliation methods that yield 2D nanomaterial dispersions in organic solvents and aqueous media. The Account subsequently focuses on separation methods, including a critical analysis of their relative strengths and weaknesses for 2D nanomaterials with different buoyant densities, van der Waals interactions, and chemical reactivities. Specifically, we evaluate sedimentation-based density gradient ultracentrifugation (sDGU) and isopycnic DGU (iDGU) for post-exfoliation 2D nanomaterial dispersion separation. The comparative advantages of sedimentation and isopycnic methods are presented in both aqueous and nonaqueous media for 2D nanomaterials with varying degrees of chemical reactivity. Finally, we survey methods for forming homogeneous thin films from 2D nanomaterial dispersions and emerging technologies that are likely to benefit from these structures. Overall, this Account provides not only an overview of the present state-of-the-art but also a forward-looking vision for the field of solution-processed monodisperse 2D nanomaterials.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85018524891&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85018524891&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00643

DO - 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00643

M3 - Article

C2 - 28240855

AN - SCOPUS:85018524891

VL - 50

SP - 943

EP - 951

JO - Accounts of Chemical Research

JF - Accounts of Chemical Research

SN - 0001-4842

IS - 4

ER -