Solvent-Mediated Crystallization of CH3NH3SnI3 Films for Heterojunction Depleted Perovskite Solar Cells

Feng Hao, Constantinos C. Stoumpos, Peijun Guo, Nanjia Zhou, Tobin J. Marks, Robert P.H. Chang, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

297 Citations (Scopus)


Organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells have gained enormous significance and have now achieved power conversion efficiencies of ∼20%. However, the potential toxicity of lead in these systems raises environmental concerns for widespread deployment. Here we investigate solvent effects on the crystallization of the lead-free methylammonium tin triiodide (CH3NH3SnI3) perovskite films in a solution growth process. Highly uniform, pinhole-free perovskite films are obtained from a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution via a transitional SnI2·3DMSO intermediate phase. This high-quality perovskite film enables the realization of heterojunction depleted solar cells based on mesoporous TiO2 layer but in the absence of any hole-transporting material with an unprecedented photocurrent up to 21 mA cm-2. Charge extraction and transient photovoltage decay measurements reveal high carrier densities in the CH3NH3SnI3 perovskite device which are one order of magnitude larger than CH3NH3PbI3-based devices but with comparable recombination lifetimes in both devices. The relatively high background dark carrier density of the Sn-based perovskite is responsible for the lower photovoltaic efficiency in comparison to the Pb-based analogues. These results provide important progress toward achieving improved perovskite morphology control in realizing solution-processed highly efficient lead-free perovskite solar cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11445-11452
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - Sep 9 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

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