Stable Postfullerene Solar Cells via Direct C-H Arylation Polymerization. Morphology-Performance Relationships

Thomas J. Aldrich, Weigang Zhu, Subhrangsu Mukherjee, Lee J. Richter, Eliot Gann, Dean M. DeLongchamp, Antonio Facchetti, Ferdinand S. Melkonyan, Tobin J Marks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The scope of the environmentally benign direct C-H arylation polymerization (DARP) process is validated and significantly extended in the synthesis of a high-performance benzodithiophene-based copolymer series, PBDT(Ar)-FTTE, with previously untested and systematically varied heteroaryl (Ar) substituents. Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) containing the high-performance nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) ITIC-Th and DARP-derived donors are fabricated and evaluated, yielding PCEs as high as 8%. The relationships between Ar-sensitive copolymer structure, BHJ morphology, and PSC performance are elucidated through in-depth characterization of structural order, phase separation, and charge transport using SCLC, AFM, GIWAXS, R-SoXS, and NEXAFS measurements, which conclusively demonstrate the important effects of Ar-tunable, dimensionally smaller, and well-blended copolymer domains for maximum PSC performance. Smaller BHJ copolymer domains having greater ITIC-Th miscibility definitively correlate with enhanced JSC, FF, and PCE metrics. Surprisingly regarding cell performance durability, while unencapsulated PBDTT-FTTE:ITIC-Th PSCs deliver the highest initial PCE, the unencapsulated PBDTTF-FTTE:ITIC-Th devices exhibit the optimum combination of high initial photovoltaic metrics and stability, retaining nearly 90% of the initial PCE after 51 days in ambient conditions and 83% of initial PCE after 180 min under simulated solar illumination. Importantly, for this PBDT(Ar)-FTTE:ITIC-Th series, PSC photovoltaic stability correlates with the presence of large pure BHJ domains, and moreover rivals or exceeds the stability of the analogous fullerene-based PSCs. Together, these results argue that solar cells prepared with the environmentally benign DARP process and NFAs are promising for both greener and more stable solar energy generation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalChemistry of Materials
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

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Solar cells
Polymerization
Heterojunctions
Copolymers
Fullerenes
Phase separation
Solar energy
Polymer solar cells
Charge transfer
Durability
Solubility
Lighting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Stable Postfullerene Solar Cells via Direct C-H Arylation Polymerization. Morphology-Performance Relationships. / Aldrich, Thomas J.; Zhu, Weigang; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Richter, Lee J.; Gann, Eliot; DeLongchamp, Dean M.; Facchetti, Antonio; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S.; Marks, Tobin J.

In: Chemistry of Materials, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aldrich, Thomas J. ; Zhu, Weigang ; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu ; Richter, Lee J. ; Gann, Eliot ; DeLongchamp, Dean M. ; Facchetti, Antonio ; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. ; Marks, Tobin J. / Stable Postfullerene Solar Cells via Direct C-H Arylation Polymerization. Morphology-Performance Relationships. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2019.
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abstract = "The scope of the environmentally benign direct C-H arylation polymerization (DARP) process is validated and significantly extended in the synthesis of a high-performance benzodithiophene-based copolymer series, PBDT(Ar)-FTTE, with previously untested and systematically varied heteroaryl (Ar) substituents. Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) containing the high-performance nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) ITIC-Th and DARP-derived donors are fabricated and evaluated, yielding PCEs as high as 8{\%}. The relationships between Ar-sensitive copolymer structure, BHJ morphology, and PSC performance are elucidated through in-depth characterization of structural order, phase separation, and charge transport using SCLC, AFM, GIWAXS, R-SoXS, and NEXAFS measurements, which conclusively demonstrate the important effects of Ar-tunable, dimensionally smaller, and well-blended copolymer domains for maximum PSC performance. Smaller BHJ copolymer domains having greater ITIC-Th miscibility definitively correlate with enhanced JSC, FF, and PCE metrics. Surprisingly regarding cell performance durability, while unencapsulated PBDTT-FTTE:ITIC-Th PSCs deliver the highest initial PCE, the unencapsulated PBDTTF-FTTE:ITIC-Th devices exhibit the optimum combination of high initial photovoltaic metrics and stability, retaining nearly 90{\%} of the initial PCE after 51 days in ambient conditions and 83{\%} of initial PCE after 180 min under simulated solar illumination. Importantly, for this PBDT(Ar)-FTTE:ITIC-Th series, PSC photovoltaic stability correlates with the presence of large pure BHJ domains, and moreover rivals or exceeds the stability of the analogous fullerene-based PSCs. Together, these results argue that solar cells prepared with the environmentally benign DARP process and NFAs are promising for both greener and more stable solar energy generation.",
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AU - Zhu, Weigang

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AU - Gann, Eliot

AU - DeLongchamp, Dean M.

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