Subsolidus phase relations and transparent conductors in the cadmium-indium-tin oxide system

Daniel R. Kammler, Bryan J. Harder, Nikolas W. Hrabe, Nikkia M. McDonald, Gabriela B. González, David A. Penake, Thomas O Mason

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Subsolidus phase relations have been determined in the CdO-InO 1.5-SnO 2 system at 1175°C. A cubic-bixbyite solution In 2-2x(Cd,Sn) 2xO 3 (0 <x <0.34), a cubic spinel solution (1-x)CdIn 2O 4-xCd 2SnO 4 (0 <x <0.75), and an orthorhombic-perovskite solution Cd 1-xSn 1-xIn 2xO 3 (0 <x <0.045) having the GdFeO 3 structure have been discovered. The CdO phase field exists over a small range of InO 1.5 (2 (2SnO 4 (Sr 2PbO 4 structure) and rutile SnO 2 appear to be point compounds with negligible solubility. The vertical section between spinel CdIn 2O 4 and orthorhombic Cd 2SnO 4 was determined between 900° and 1175°C. The spinel phase field (1-x)CdIn 2O 4-xCd 2SnO 4 was found to extend between x = 0 and x = 0.75 at 1175°C or x = 0.78 at 900°C. All of the phases in this system appear to allow small excess quantities of the donors In and/or Sn (vs cation stoichiometry) which may be the source of the electrons that give these oxides their n-type character. The electrical and optical properties of bulk and thin-film specimens in this system are compared and contrasted with each other and the relative merits of each are assessed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2345-2352
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2002


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites

Cite this

Kammler, D. R., Harder, B. J., Hrabe, N. W., McDonald, N. M., González, G. B., Penake, D. A., & Mason, T. O. (2002). Subsolidus phase relations and transparent conductors in the cadmium-indium-tin oxide system. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 85(9), 2345-2352.