The subsurface strain associated with surface reconstruction was measured for the Ge(001)-c(4×2) and Ge(111)-c(2×8) surfaces using high energy ion scattering. In the case of the Ge(001) surface we find the equivalent of ∼3 monolayers displaced by more than 0.12 Å, in accord with dimer models of the surface reconstruction. For the Ge(111) surface displacements are observed in off-normal incidence, indicating large displacements perpendicular to the surface or other reconstructions, such as a stacking fault configuration. The relationship between subsurface strain and stacking fault models is also discussed. The subsurface strain in these two Ge surfaces is remarkably similar to that of the corresponding Si surfaces, even though the details of the surface reconstruction are different. Measurements at low temperature indicate that the strain is essentially temperature independent, as expected. Measurements of the hydrogen covered surfaces show little change is strain, a surprising result when compared to the behavior of Si(001).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces