Fossil Fuels are relatively cheap, easily distributed, and readily used but are finite, have grave ecological, and serious geo-political implications. Before century end, the world must find abundant, affordable, safe, secure, and sustainable alternatives or suffer a much reduced standard of living. Existing and emerging technologies won't be sufficient to sustain growing aspirations of an increasing worldwide population; but frontier science and technology holds promise and potential to navigate the multitude of challenges, including energy and national security, economic well-being, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation highlights a promising opportunity to meet these challenges, namely converting carbon dioxide and water to activated precursors for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. One simple chemical equation, closely resembling photosynthesis, summarizes: Renewable + xCO2 + (x+1) H2O × CxH2x+2(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5) O2 We call this "Sunshine to Petrol" when concentrated solar is the renewable resource and two-step thermochemical is the conversion pathway.