Electrocatalysts are critically important for a secure energy future, as they facilitate the conversion between electrical and chemical energy. Molecular catalysts offer precise control of structure that enables understanding of structure-reactivity relationships, which can be difficult to achieve with heterogeneous catalysts. Molecular electrocatalysts can be immobilized on surfaces by covalent bonds or through non-covalent interactions. Advantages of surface immobilization include the need for less catalyst, avoidance of bimolecular decomposition pathways, and easier determination of catalyst lifetime. This Minireview highlights surface immobilization of molecular electrocatalysts for reduction of O2, oxidation of H2O, production of H2, and reduction of CO2.
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