Surface origin of high conductivities in undoped In 2O 3 thin films

S. Lany, A. Zakutayev, T. O. Mason, J. F. Wager, K. R. Poeppelmeier, J. D. Perkins, J. J. Berry, D. S. Ginley, A. Zunger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

78 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The microscopic cause of conductivity in transparent conducting oxides like ZnO, In 2O 3, and SnO 2 is generally considered to be a point defect mechanism in the bulk, involving intrinsic lattice defects, extrinsic dopants, or unintentional impurities like hydrogen. We confirm here that the defect theory for O-vacancies can quantitatively account for the rather moderate conductivity and off-stoichiometry observed in bulk In 2O 3 samples under high-temperature equilibrium conditions. However, nominally undoped thin-films of In 2O 3 can exhibit surprisingly high conductivities exceeding by 4-5 orders of magnitude that of bulk samples under identical conditions (temperature and O 2 partial pressure). Employing surface calculations and thickness-dependent Hall measurements, we demonstrate that surface donors rather than bulk defects dominate the conductivity of In 2O 3 thin films.

Original languageEnglish
Article number016802
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume108
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 5 2012

Fingerprint

conductivity
thin films
defects
point defects
partial pressure
stoichiometry
conduction
impurities
oxides
causes
hydrogen
temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Surface origin of high conductivities in undoped In 2O 3 thin films. / Lany, S.; Zakutayev, A.; Mason, T. O.; Wager, J. F.; Poeppelmeier, K. R.; Perkins, J. D.; Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.; Zunger, A.

In: Physical Review Letters, Vol. 108, No. 1, 016802, 05.01.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lany, S, Zakutayev, A, Mason, TO, Wager, JF, Poeppelmeier, KR, Perkins, JD, Berry, JJ, Ginley, DS & Zunger, A 2012, 'Surface origin of high conductivities in undoped In 2O 3 thin films', Physical Review Letters, vol. 108, no. 1, 016802. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.016802
Lany, S. ; Zakutayev, A. ; Mason, T. O. ; Wager, J. F. ; Poeppelmeier, K. R. ; Perkins, J. D. ; Berry, J. J. ; Ginley, D. S. ; Zunger, A. / Surface origin of high conductivities in undoped In 2O 3 thin films. In: Physical Review Letters. 2012 ; Vol. 108, No. 1.
@article{3eff0d8a2e474ae1afb2af0d9cfb81a1,
title = "Surface origin of high conductivities in undoped In 2O 3 thin films",
abstract = "The microscopic cause of conductivity in transparent conducting oxides like ZnO, In 2O 3, and SnO 2 is generally considered to be a point defect mechanism in the bulk, involving intrinsic lattice defects, extrinsic dopants, or unintentional impurities like hydrogen. We confirm here that the defect theory for O-vacancies can quantitatively account for the rather moderate conductivity and off-stoichiometry observed in bulk In 2O 3 samples under high-temperature equilibrium conditions. However, nominally undoped thin-films of In 2O 3 can exhibit surprisingly high conductivities exceeding by 4-5 orders of magnitude that of bulk samples under identical conditions (temperature and O 2 partial pressure). Employing surface calculations and thickness-dependent Hall measurements, we demonstrate that surface donors rather than bulk defects dominate the conductivity of In 2O 3 thin films.",
author = "S. Lany and A. Zakutayev and Mason, {T. O.} and Wager, {J. F.} and Poeppelmeier, {K. R.} and Perkins, {J. D.} and Berry, {J. J.} and Ginley, {D. S.} and A. Zunger",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.016802",
language = "English",
volume = "108",
journal = "Physical Review Letters",
issn = "0031-9007",
publisher = "American Physical Society",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Surface origin of high conductivities in undoped In 2O 3 thin films

AU - Lany, S.

AU - Zakutayev, A.

AU - Mason, T. O.

AU - Wager, J. F.

AU - Poeppelmeier, K. R.

AU - Perkins, J. D.

AU - Berry, J. J.

AU - Ginley, D. S.

AU - Zunger, A.

PY - 2012/1/5

Y1 - 2012/1/5

N2 - The microscopic cause of conductivity in transparent conducting oxides like ZnO, In 2O 3, and SnO 2 is generally considered to be a point defect mechanism in the bulk, involving intrinsic lattice defects, extrinsic dopants, or unintentional impurities like hydrogen. We confirm here that the defect theory for O-vacancies can quantitatively account for the rather moderate conductivity and off-stoichiometry observed in bulk In 2O 3 samples under high-temperature equilibrium conditions. However, nominally undoped thin-films of In 2O 3 can exhibit surprisingly high conductivities exceeding by 4-5 orders of magnitude that of bulk samples under identical conditions (temperature and O 2 partial pressure). Employing surface calculations and thickness-dependent Hall measurements, we demonstrate that surface donors rather than bulk defects dominate the conductivity of In 2O 3 thin films.

AB - The microscopic cause of conductivity in transparent conducting oxides like ZnO, In 2O 3, and SnO 2 is generally considered to be a point defect mechanism in the bulk, involving intrinsic lattice defects, extrinsic dopants, or unintentional impurities like hydrogen. We confirm here that the defect theory for O-vacancies can quantitatively account for the rather moderate conductivity and off-stoichiometry observed in bulk In 2O 3 samples under high-temperature equilibrium conditions. However, nominally undoped thin-films of In 2O 3 can exhibit surprisingly high conductivities exceeding by 4-5 orders of magnitude that of bulk samples under identical conditions (temperature and O 2 partial pressure). Employing surface calculations and thickness-dependent Hall measurements, we demonstrate that surface donors rather than bulk defects dominate the conductivity of In 2O 3 thin films.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84855507333&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84855507333&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.016802

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.016802

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84855507333

VL - 108

JO - Physical Review Letters

JF - Physical Review Letters

SN - 0031-9007

IS - 1

M1 - 016802

ER -