Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3

Elena Meirzadeh, Dennis V. Christensen, Evgeniy Makagon, Hagai Cohen, Irit Rosenhek-Goldian, Erie H. Morales, Arghya Bhowmik, Juan Maria G. Lastra, Andrew M. Rappe, David Ehre, Meir Lahav, Nini Pryds, Igor Lubomirsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Symmetry-imposed restrictions on the number of available pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials remain a major limitation as 22 out of 32 crystallographic material classes exhibit neither pyroelectricity nor piezoelectricity. Yet, by breaking the lattice symmetry it is possible to circumvent this limitation. Here, using a unique technique for measuring transient currents upon rapid heating, direct experimental evidence is provided that despite the fact that bulk SrTiO3 is not pyroelectric, the (100) surface of TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 is intrinsically pyroelectric at room temperature. The pyroelectric layer is found to be ≈1 nm thick and, surprisingly, its polarization is comparable with that of strongly polar materials such as BaTiO3. The pyroelectric effect can be tuned ON/OFF by the formation or removal of a nanometric SiO2 layer. Using density functional theory, the pyroelectricity is found to be a result of polar surface relaxation, which can be suppressed by varying the lattice symmetry breaking using a SiO2 capping layer. The observation of pyroelectricity emerging at the SrTiO3 surface also implies that it is intrinsically piezoelectric. These findings may pave the way for observing and tailoring piezo- and pyroelectricity in any material through appropriate breaking of symmetry at surfaces and artificial nanostructures such as heterointerfaces and superlattices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1904733
JournalAdvanced Materials
Volume31
Issue number44
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2019

Fingerprint

Pyroelectricity
Surface relaxation
Piezoelectricity
Piezoelectric materials
Superlattices
Density functional theory
Nanostructures
Polarization
Heating
strontium titanium oxide
Temperature

Keywords

  • broken symmetry
  • SrTiO
  • strontium titanate
  • surface pyroelectricity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Meirzadeh, E., Christensen, D. V., Makagon, E., Cohen, H., Rosenhek-Goldian, I., Morales, E. H., ... Lubomirsky, I. (2019). Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3 Advanced Materials, 31(44), [1904733]. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201904733

Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3 . / Meirzadeh, Elena; Christensen, Dennis V.; Makagon, Evgeniy; Cohen, Hagai; Rosenhek-Goldian, Irit; Morales, Erie H.; Bhowmik, Arghya; Lastra, Juan Maria G.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Ehre, David; Lahav, Meir; Pryds, Nini; Lubomirsky, Igor.

In: Advanced Materials, Vol. 31, No. 44, 1904733, 01.11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meirzadeh, E, Christensen, DV, Makagon, E, Cohen, H, Rosenhek-Goldian, I, Morales, EH, Bhowmik, A, Lastra, JMG, Rappe, AM, Ehre, D, Lahav, M, Pryds, N & Lubomirsky, I 2019, 'Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3 ', Advanced Materials, vol. 31, no. 44, 1904733. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201904733
Meirzadeh E, Christensen DV, Makagon E, Cohen H, Rosenhek-Goldian I, Morales EH et al. Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3 Advanced Materials. 2019 Nov 1;31(44). 1904733. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201904733
Meirzadeh, Elena ; Christensen, Dennis V. ; Makagon, Evgeniy ; Cohen, Hagai ; Rosenhek-Goldian, Irit ; Morales, Erie H. ; Bhowmik, Arghya ; Lastra, Juan Maria G. ; Rappe, Andrew M. ; Ehre, David ; Lahav, Meir ; Pryds, Nini ; Lubomirsky, Igor. / Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3 In: Advanced Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 31, No. 44.
@article{86a2b8b4f68445bdb193ba4842880c2c,
title = "Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3",
abstract = "Symmetry-imposed restrictions on the number of available pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials remain a major limitation as 22 out of 32 crystallographic material classes exhibit neither pyroelectricity nor piezoelectricity. Yet, by breaking the lattice symmetry it is possible to circumvent this limitation. Here, using a unique technique for measuring transient currents upon rapid heating, direct experimental evidence is provided that despite the fact that bulk SrTiO3 is not pyroelectric, the (100) surface of TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 is intrinsically pyroelectric at room temperature. The pyroelectric layer is found to be ≈1 nm thick and, surprisingly, its polarization is comparable with that of strongly polar materials such as BaTiO3. The pyroelectric effect can be tuned ON/OFF by the formation or removal of a nanometric SiO2 layer. Using density functional theory, the pyroelectricity is found to be a result of polar surface relaxation, which can be suppressed by varying the lattice symmetry breaking using a SiO2 capping layer. The observation of pyroelectricity emerging at the SrTiO3 surface also implies that it is intrinsically piezoelectric. These findings may pave the way for observing and tailoring piezo- and pyroelectricity in any material through appropriate breaking of symmetry at surfaces and artificial nanostructures such as heterointerfaces and superlattices.",
keywords = "broken symmetry, SrTiO, strontium titanate, surface pyroelectricity",
author = "Elena Meirzadeh and Christensen, {Dennis V.} and Evgeniy Makagon and Hagai Cohen and Irit Rosenhek-Goldian and Morales, {Erie H.} and Arghya Bhowmik and Lastra, {Juan Maria G.} and Rappe, {Andrew M.} and David Ehre and Meir Lahav and Nini Pryds and Igor Lubomirsky",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/adma.201904733",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
journal = "Advanced Materials",
issn = "0935-9648",
publisher = "Wiley-VCH Verlag",
number = "44",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Surface Pyroelectricity in Cubic SrTiO3

AU - Meirzadeh, Elena

AU - Christensen, Dennis V.

AU - Makagon, Evgeniy

AU - Cohen, Hagai

AU - Rosenhek-Goldian, Irit

AU - Morales, Erie H.

AU - Bhowmik, Arghya

AU - Lastra, Juan Maria G.

AU - Rappe, Andrew M.

AU - Ehre, David

AU - Lahav, Meir

AU - Pryds, Nini

AU - Lubomirsky, Igor

PY - 2019/11/1

Y1 - 2019/11/1

N2 - Symmetry-imposed restrictions on the number of available pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials remain a major limitation as 22 out of 32 crystallographic material classes exhibit neither pyroelectricity nor piezoelectricity. Yet, by breaking the lattice symmetry it is possible to circumvent this limitation. Here, using a unique technique for measuring transient currents upon rapid heating, direct experimental evidence is provided that despite the fact that bulk SrTiO3 is not pyroelectric, the (100) surface of TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 is intrinsically pyroelectric at room temperature. The pyroelectric layer is found to be ≈1 nm thick and, surprisingly, its polarization is comparable with that of strongly polar materials such as BaTiO3. The pyroelectric effect can be tuned ON/OFF by the formation or removal of a nanometric SiO2 layer. Using density functional theory, the pyroelectricity is found to be a result of polar surface relaxation, which can be suppressed by varying the lattice symmetry breaking using a SiO2 capping layer. The observation of pyroelectricity emerging at the SrTiO3 surface also implies that it is intrinsically piezoelectric. These findings may pave the way for observing and tailoring piezo- and pyroelectricity in any material through appropriate breaking of symmetry at surfaces and artificial nanostructures such as heterointerfaces and superlattices.

AB - Symmetry-imposed restrictions on the number of available pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials remain a major limitation as 22 out of 32 crystallographic material classes exhibit neither pyroelectricity nor piezoelectricity. Yet, by breaking the lattice symmetry it is possible to circumvent this limitation. Here, using a unique technique for measuring transient currents upon rapid heating, direct experimental evidence is provided that despite the fact that bulk SrTiO3 is not pyroelectric, the (100) surface of TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 is intrinsically pyroelectric at room temperature. The pyroelectric layer is found to be ≈1 nm thick and, surprisingly, its polarization is comparable with that of strongly polar materials such as BaTiO3. The pyroelectric effect can be tuned ON/OFF by the formation or removal of a nanometric SiO2 layer. Using density functional theory, the pyroelectricity is found to be a result of polar surface relaxation, which can be suppressed by varying the lattice symmetry breaking using a SiO2 capping layer. The observation of pyroelectricity emerging at the SrTiO3 surface also implies that it is intrinsically piezoelectric. These findings may pave the way for observing and tailoring piezo- and pyroelectricity in any material through appropriate breaking of symmetry at surfaces and artificial nanostructures such as heterointerfaces and superlattices.

KW - broken symmetry

KW - SrTiO

KW - strontium titanate

KW - surface pyroelectricity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85073965578&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85073965578&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/adma.201904733

DO - 10.1002/adma.201904733

M3 - Article

C2 - 31532884

AN - SCOPUS:85073965578

VL - 31

JO - Advanced Materials

JF - Advanced Materials

SN - 0935-9648

IS - 44

M1 - 1904733

ER -