Surface versus bulk electronic/defect structures of transparent conducting oxides: I. Indium oxide and ITO

S. P. Harvey, Thomas O Mason, Y. Gassenbauer, R. Schafranek, A. Klein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carefully prepared bulk ceramic specimens of In2O3 and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) were analysed with x-ray and UV photoelectron spectroscopy before and after heat treatment in vacuum and oxygen atmosphere. The results on ex situ prepared ceramic specimens were shown to be comparable to those of in situ deposited-measured thin films in terms of core levels, Fermi levels and ionization potentials. This suggests a viable path for rapid synthesis and screening of surface electronic-defect properties for other transparent conducting oxides (TCO) materials. A strong correlation exists between the surface electronic-defect structure of In2O 3-based TCOs and their underlying electronic-defect structure, owing to the unique crystal-defect properties of the bixbyite structure. This leads to formation of a chemical depletion at the surface and the formation of a peroxide surface species for higher preparation temperatures. The results are discussed with respect to the use of ITO as hole injection electrode in organic light emitting devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number006
Pages (from-to)3959-3968
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume39
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 21 2006

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Defect structures
ITO (semiconductors)
indium oxides
Indium
Oxides
conduction
oxides
defects
electronics
ceramics
Core levels
Ionization potential
Crystal defects
Peroxides
peroxides
Photoelectron spectroscopy
Fermi level
Ultraviolet spectroscopy
crystal defects
ionization potentials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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Surface versus bulk electronic/defect structures of transparent conducting oxides : I. Indium oxide and ITO. / Harvey, S. P.; Mason, Thomas O; Gassenbauer, Y.; Schafranek, R.; Klein, A.

In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 39, No. 18, 006, 21.09.2006, p. 3959-3968.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvey, S. P. ; Mason, Thomas O ; Gassenbauer, Y. ; Schafranek, R. ; Klein, A. / Surface versus bulk electronic/defect structures of transparent conducting oxides : I. Indium oxide and ITO. In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2006 ; Vol. 39, No. 18. pp. 3959-3968.
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