Syntheses, structures, and properties of six novel alkali metal tin sulfides: K2Sn2S8, α-Rb2Sn2S8, β-Rb2Sn2S8, K2Sn2S5, Cs2Sn2S6, and Cs2SnS14

Ju Hsiou Liao, Constantinos Varotsis, Mercouri G Kanatzidis

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Abstract

Six alkali metal tin polysulfides and one monosulfide, K2Sn2S8 (I), α-Rb2Sn2S8 (II), β-Rb2Sn2S8 (III), K2Sn2S5 (IV), Cs2Sn2S6 (V), and Cs2SnS14 (VI), respectively, were synthesized by a molten salt technique. I and IV were made by heating mixtures of Sn/K2S/S (molar ratio 1/2/8) at 275 and 320°C, respectively, for 4-6 days. II and III were made by heating mixtures of Sn/Rb2S/S (molar ratio 1/2/12 for II and 1/1/8 for III at 330 and 450°C, respectively, for 4-6 days. V and VI were made by heating mixtures of Sn/Cs2S/S (molar ratio 1/3/8 for V and 1/2/8-12 for VI at 275°C for 4-6 days. The crystals form in a K2Sx, Rb2Sx, and Cs2Sx flux, respectively. Orange crystals of I crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.580(8) Å, b = 10.004(5) Å, c = 14.131(7) Å, β = 107.82(6)°, and Z = 4. Orange crystals of II and III have the same anionic frameworks as I. II crystallizes also in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.788(3) Å, b = 9.978(3) Å, c = 14.360(2) Å, and β = 106.70(2)°, and Z = 4. III crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with a = 9.987(5) Å, b = 19.635(3) Å, c = 13.747(3) Å, and Z = 8. The yellow-orange IV crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 11.804(3) Å, b = 7.808(1) Å, c = 11.539(1) Å, β = 108.35(1)°, and Z = 4. The yellow V crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 7.289(4) Å, b = 7.597(3) Å, c = 6.796(3) Å, α = 114.80(3)°, β = 108.56(4)°, γ = 97.54(4)°, and Z = 1. Red crystals of VI are monoclinic, space group P21/n, with a = 6.964(6) Å, b = 18.66(1) Å, c = 14.80(1) Å, β = 99.39(1)°, and Z = 4. The structures of these six compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. IR and Raman spectra for these compounds are reported. I-III have novel two-dimensional structures. Each [Sn2S8]n2n- layer is composed of [Sn2S4]n parallel chains, which contain octahedral SnS6 and tetrahedral SnS4, cross-linked by S42- ligands. Charge-compensating potassium or rubidium cations are found between the layers. IV has the Tl2Sn2S3 structure type and has a three-dimensional structure, with [SnS3]n2n- chains formed by distorted SnS5 trigonal bipyramids sharing two of their common edges with one another. Those chains are then cross-linked by sharing the remaining vertices of the trigonal bipyramids to generate parallel tunnels in which potassium cations are located. The structure of V is closely related to IV. It also comprises [SnS3]n2n- chains which in a different fashion are cross-linked by S22- to form an extended two-dimensional structure. VI contains a molecular [SnS14]2- complex anion with octahedral Sn4+ ligated by two S42- and one S62- chelating ligands. The UV/vis optical properties of I-V are reported. The optical band gaps are 2.15 eV for I-III, 2.36 eV for IV, and 2.44 eV for V.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2453-2462
Number of pages10
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Volume32
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1993

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Alkali Metals
alkali metals
sulfides
tin
Crystals
synthesis
Heating
Cations
Potassium
Rubidium
Ligands
heating
crystals
Tin
potassium
Optical band gaps
Chelation
X ray diffraction analysis
Anions
polysulfides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Inorganic Chemistry

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Syntheses, structures, and properties of six novel alkali metal tin sulfides : K2Sn2S8, α-Rb2Sn2S8, β-Rb2Sn2S8, K2Sn2S5, Cs2Sn2S6, and Cs2SnS14. / Liao, Ju Hsiou; Varotsis, Constantinos; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

In: Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 32, No. 11, 1993, p. 2453-2462.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Syntheses, structures, and properties of six novel alkali metal tin sulfides: K2Sn2S8, α-Rb2Sn2S8, β-Rb2Sn2S8, K2Sn2S5, Cs2Sn2S6, and Cs2SnS14",
abstract = "Six alkali metal tin polysulfides and one monosulfide, K2Sn2S8 (I), α-Rb2Sn2S8 (II), β-Rb2Sn2S8 (III), K2Sn2S5 (IV), Cs2Sn2S6 (V), and Cs2SnS14 (VI), respectively, were synthesized by a molten salt technique. I and IV were made by heating mixtures of Sn/K2S/S (molar ratio 1/2/8) at 275 and 320°C, respectively, for 4-6 days. II and III were made by heating mixtures of Sn/Rb2S/S (molar ratio 1/2/12 for II and 1/1/8 for III at 330 and 450°C, respectively, for 4-6 days. V and VI were made by heating mixtures of Sn/Cs2S/S (molar ratio 1/3/8 for V and 1/2/8-12 for VI at 275°C for 4-6 days. The crystals form in a K2Sx, Rb2Sx, and Cs2Sx flux, respectively. Orange crystals of I crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.580(8) {\AA}, b = 10.004(5) {\AA}, c = 14.131(7) {\AA}, β = 107.82(6)°, and Z = 4. Orange crystals of II and III have the same anionic frameworks as I. II crystallizes also in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.788(3) {\AA}, b = 9.978(3) {\AA}, c = 14.360(2) {\AA}, and β = 106.70(2)°, and Z = 4. III crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with a = 9.987(5) {\AA}, b = 19.635(3) {\AA}, c = 13.747(3) {\AA}, and Z = 8. The yellow-orange IV crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 11.804(3) {\AA}, b = 7.808(1) {\AA}, c = 11.539(1) {\AA}, β = 108.35(1)°, and Z = 4. The yellow V crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 7.289(4) {\AA}, b = 7.597(3) {\AA}, c = 6.796(3) {\AA}, α = 114.80(3)°, β = 108.56(4)°, γ = 97.54(4)°, and Z = 1. Red crystals of VI are monoclinic, space group P21/n, with a = 6.964(6) {\AA}, b = 18.66(1) {\AA}, c = 14.80(1) {\AA}, β = 99.39(1)°, and Z = 4. The structures of these six compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. IR and Raman spectra for these compounds are reported. I-III have novel two-dimensional structures. Each [Sn2S8]n2n- layer is composed of [Sn2S4]n parallel chains, which contain octahedral SnS6 and tetrahedral SnS4, cross-linked by S42- ligands. Charge-compensating potassium or rubidium cations are found between the layers. IV has the Tl2Sn2S3 structure type and has a three-dimensional structure, with [SnS3]n2n- chains formed by distorted SnS5 trigonal bipyramids sharing two of their common edges with one another. Those chains are then cross-linked by sharing the remaining vertices of the trigonal bipyramids to generate parallel tunnels in which potassium cations are located. The structure of V is closely related to IV. It also comprises [SnS3]n2n- chains which in a different fashion are cross-linked by S22- to form an extended two-dimensional structure. VI contains a molecular [SnS14]2- complex anion with octahedral Sn4+ ligated by two S42- and one S62- chelating ligands. The UV/vis optical properties of I-V are reported. The optical band gaps are 2.15 eV for I-III, 2.36 eV for IV, and 2.44 eV for V.",
author = "Liao, {Ju Hsiou} and Constantinos Varotsis and Kanatzidis, {Mercouri G}",
year = "1993",
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journal = "Inorganic Chemistry",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Syntheses, structures, and properties of six novel alkali metal tin sulfides

T2 - K2Sn2S8, α-Rb2Sn2S8, β-Rb2Sn2S8, K2Sn2S5, Cs2Sn2S6, and Cs2SnS14

AU - Liao, Ju Hsiou

AU - Varotsis, Constantinos

AU - Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

PY - 1993

Y1 - 1993

N2 - Six alkali metal tin polysulfides and one monosulfide, K2Sn2S8 (I), α-Rb2Sn2S8 (II), β-Rb2Sn2S8 (III), K2Sn2S5 (IV), Cs2Sn2S6 (V), and Cs2SnS14 (VI), respectively, were synthesized by a molten salt technique. I and IV were made by heating mixtures of Sn/K2S/S (molar ratio 1/2/8) at 275 and 320°C, respectively, for 4-6 days. II and III were made by heating mixtures of Sn/Rb2S/S (molar ratio 1/2/12 for II and 1/1/8 for III at 330 and 450°C, respectively, for 4-6 days. V and VI were made by heating mixtures of Sn/Cs2S/S (molar ratio 1/3/8 for V and 1/2/8-12 for VI at 275°C for 4-6 days. The crystals form in a K2Sx, Rb2Sx, and Cs2Sx flux, respectively. Orange crystals of I crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.580(8) Å, b = 10.004(5) Å, c = 14.131(7) Å, β = 107.82(6)°, and Z = 4. Orange crystals of II and III have the same anionic frameworks as I. II crystallizes also in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.788(3) Å, b = 9.978(3) Å, c = 14.360(2) Å, and β = 106.70(2)°, and Z = 4. III crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with a = 9.987(5) Å, b = 19.635(3) Å, c = 13.747(3) Å, and Z = 8. The yellow-orange IV crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 11.804(3) Å, b = 7.808(1) Å, c = 11.539(1) Å, β = 108.35(1)°, and Z = 4. The yellow V crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 7.289(4) Å, b = 7.597(3) Å, c = 6.796(3) Å, α = 114.80(3)°, β = 108.56(4)°, γ = 97.54(4)°, and Z = 1. Red crystals of VI are monoclinic, space group P21/n, with a = 6.964(6) Å, b = 18.66(1) Å, c = 14.80(1) Å, β = 99.39(1)°, and Z = 4. The structures of these six compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. IR and Raman spectra for these compounds are reported. I-III have novel two-dimensional structures. Each [Sn2S8]n2n- layer is composed of [Sn2S4]n parallel chains, which contain octahedral SnS6 and tetrahedral SnS4, cross-linked by S42- ligands. Charge-compensating potassium or rubidium cations are found between the layers. IV has the Tl2Sn2S3 structure type and has a three-dimensional structure, with [SnS3]n2n- chains formed by distorted SnS5 trigonal bipyramids sharing two of their common edges with one another. Those chains are then cross-linked by sharing the remaining vertices of the trigonal bipyramids to generate parallel tunnels in which potassium cations are located. The structure of V is closely related to IV. It also comprises [SnS3]n2n- chains which in a different fashion are cross-linked by S22- to form an extended two-dimensional structure. VI contains a molecular [SnS14]2- complex anion with octahedral Sn4+ ligated by two S42- and one S62- chelating ligands. The UV/vis optical properties of I-V are reported. The optical band gaps are 2.15 eV for I-III, 2.36 eV for IV, and 2.44 eV for V.

AB - Six alkali metal tin polysulfides and one monosulfide, K2Sn2S8 (I), α-Rb2Sn2S8 (II), β-Rb2Sn2S8 (III), K2Sn2S5 (IV), Cs2Sn2S6 (V), and Cs2SnS14 (VI), respectively, were synthesized by a molten salt technique. I and IV were made by heating mixtures of Sn/K2S/S (molar ratio 1/2/8) at 275 and 320°C, respectively, for 4-6 days. II and III were made by heating mixtures of Sn/Rb2S/S (molar ratio 1/2/12 for II and 1/1/8 for III at 330 and 450°C, respectively, for 4-6 days. V and VI were made by heating mixtures of Sn/Cs2S/S (molar ratio 1/3/8 for V and 1/2/8-12 for VI at 275°C for 4-6 days. The crystals form in a K2Sx, Rb2Sx, and Cs2Sx flux, respectively. Orange crystals of I crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.580(8) Å, b = 10.004(5) Å, c = 14.131(7) Å, β = 107.82(6)°, and Z = 4. Orange crystals of II and III have the same anionic frameworks as I. II crystallizes also in the monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.788(3) Å, b = 9.978(3) Å, c = 14.360(2) Å, and β = 106.70(2)°, and Z = 4. III crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with a = 9.987(5) Å, b = 19.635(3) Å, c = 13.747(3) Å, and Z = 8. The yellow-orange IV crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with a = 11.804(3) Å, b = 7.808(1) Å, c = 11.539(1) Å, β = 108.35(1)°, and Z = 4. The yellow V crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 7.289(4) Å, b = 7.597(3) Å, c = 6.796(3) Å, α = 114.80(3)°, β = 108.56(4)°, γ = 97.54(4)°, and Z = 1. Red crystals of VI are monoclinic, space group P21/n, with a = 6.964(6) Å, b = 18.66(1) Å, c = 14.80(1) Å, β = 99.39(1)°, and Z = 4. The structures of these six compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. IR and Raman spectra for these compounds are reported. I-III have novel two-dimensional structures. Each [Sn2S8]n2n- layer is composed of [Sn2S4]n parallel chains, which contain octahedral SnS6 and tetrahedral SnS4, cross-linked by S42- ligands. Charge-compensating potassium or rubidium cations are found between the layers. IV has the Tl2Sn2S3 structure type and has a three-dimensional structure, with [SnS3]n2n- chains formed by distorted SnS5 trigonal bipyramids sharing two of their common edges with one another. Those chains are then cross-linked by sharing the remaining vertices of the trigonal bipyramids to generate parallel tunnels in which potassium cations are located. The structure of V is closely related to IV. It also comprises [SnS3]n2n- chains which in a different fashion are cross-linked by S22- to form an extended two-dimensional structure. VI contains a molecular [SnS14]2- complex anion with octahedral Sn4+ ligated by two S42- and one S62- chelating ligands. The UV/vis optical properties of I-V are reported. The optical band gaps are 2.15 eV for I-III, 2.36 eV for IV, and 2.44 eV for V.

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