Systematic studies of the semiconductor/liquid junction: n-gallium arsenide phosphide anodes in aqueous Se2-/Se2 2- solutions

Chris M. Gronet, Nathan S Lewis

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Abstract

Epitaxial layers of n-GaAs1-xPx (0 <x <1) have been studied as photoelectrodes and as Au Schottky junctions. We observe increases in open-circuit voltage, Voc, with increases in P content for n-GaAs1-xPx (x ≤ 0.4) and decreases in Voc for ≤ 0.6. Under 88 mW/cm2 of ELH-type.(3350 K color temperature with a dichroic rear reflector) tungsten-halogen irradiation, we observe that n-GaAs0.72P0.28 anodes exhibit a Voc of 0.95-0.99 V, short-circuit currents of 15-17 mA/cm2, and energy conversion efficiencies of 13.0 ± 1.0%. Irradiation at 632.8-nm yields monochromatic conversion efficiencies of greater than 30%, and solar irradiation (85-100 mW/cm2) yields efficiencies of 11.0 ± 1.0% in 1.0 M KOH/1.0 M Se2-/0.-01 M Se2 2- solutions. The n-GaAs0.72P0.28 anodes exhibit stable photocurrent for passage of over 3000 C/cm2 at AM1 photocurrent densities. Ru(H2O)6 3+ ions are effective in improving photocurrent-voltage characteristics for H-GaAs1-xPx (0 ≤ x <1) anodes but have no effect for n-GaP, indicating chemical interactions of the Ru ion with As or As oxide sites at the semiconductor/liquid junction. Direct comparison of Voc for n-GaAs1-xPx/Au junctions with n-GaAs1-xPx/Se2- barriers indicates that liquid junctions have higher Voc values than some Schottky barriers and that pinning of the Fermi level by intrinsic surface states may not play a dominant role in determining interface parameters for these junctions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1310-1317
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry
Volume88
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1984

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phosphides
Gallium arsenide
Photocurrents
gallium
Anodes
anodes
Irradiation
Semiconductor materials
Conversion efficiency
Liquids
photocurrents
liquids
Ions
Tungsten
Halogens
Epitaxial layers
irradiation
Surface states
Open circuit voltage
Fermi level

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Systematic studies of the semiconductor/liquid junction: n-gallium arsenide phosphide anodes in aqueous Se2-/Se2 2- solutions",
abstract = "Epitaxial layers of n-GaAs1-xPx (0 oc, with increases in P content for n-GaAs1-xPx (x ≤ 0.4) and decreases in Voc for ≤ 0.6. Under 88 mW/cm2 of ELH-type.(3350 K color temperature with a dichroic rear reflector) tungsten-halogen irradiation, we observe that n-GaAs0.72P0.28 anodes exhibit a Voc of 0.95-0.99 V, short-circuit currents of 15-17 mA/cm2, and energy conversion efficiencies of 13.0 ± 1.0{\%}. Irradiation at 632.8-nm yields monochromatic conversion efficiencies of greater than 30{\%}, and solar irradiation (85-100 mW/cm2) yields efficiencies of 11.0 ± 1.0{\%} in 1.0 M KOH/1.0 M Se2-/0.-01 M Se2 2- solutions. The n-GaAs0.72P0.28 anodes exhibit stable photocurrent for passage of over 3000 C/cm2 at AM1 photocurrent densities. Ru(H2O)6 3+ ions are effective in improving photocurrent-voltage characteristics for H-GaAs1-xPx (0 ≤ x <1) anodes but have no effect for n-GaP, indicating chemical interactions of the Ru ion with As or As oxide sites at the semiconductor/liquid junction. Direct comparison of Voc for n-GaAs1-xPx/Au junctions with n-GaAs1-xPx/Se2- barriers indicates that liquid junctions have higher Voc values than some Schottky barriers and that pinning of the Fermi level by intrinsic surface states may not play a dominant role in determining interface parameters for these junctions.",
author = "Gronet, {Chris M.} and Lewis, {Nathan S}",
year = "1984",
language = "English",
volume = "88",
pages = "1310--1317",
journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry",
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T1 - Systematic studies of the semiconductor/liquid junction

T2 - n-gallium arsenide phosphide anodes in aqueous Se2-/Se2 2- solutions

AU - Gronet, Chris M.

AU - Lewis, Nathan S

PY - 1984

Y1 - 1984

N2 - Epitaxial layers of n-GaAs1-xPx (0 oc, with increases in P content for n-GaAs1-xPx (x ≤ 0.4) and decreases in Voc for ≤ 0.6. Under 88 mW/cm2 of ELH-type.(3350 K color temperature with a dichroic rear reflector) tungsten-halogen irradiation, we observe that n-GaAs0.72P0.28 anodes exhibit a Voc of 0.95-0.99 V, short-circuit currents of 15-17 mA/cm2, and energy conversion efficiencies of 13.0 ± 1.0%. Irradiation at 632.8-nm yields monochromatic conversion efficiencies of greater than 30%, and solar irradiation (85-100 mW/cm2) yields efficiencies of 11.0 ± 1.0% in 1.0 M KOH/1.0 M Se2-/0.-01 M Se2 2- solutions. The n-GaAs0.72P0.28 anodes exhibit stable photocurrent for passage of over 3000 C/cm2 at AM1 photocurrent densities. Ru(H2O)6 3+ ions are effective in improving photocurrent-voltage characteristics for H-GaAs1-xPx (0 ≤ x <1) anodes but have no effect for n-GaP, indicating chemical interactions of the Ru ion with As or As oxide sites at the semiconductor/liquid junction. Direct comparison of Voc for n-GaAs1-xPx/Au junctions with n-GaAs1-xPx/Se2- barriers indicates that liquid junctions have higher Voc values than some Schottky barriers and that pinning of the Fermi level by intrinsic surface states may not play a dominant role in determining interface parameters for these junctions.

AB - Epitaxial layers of n-GaAs1-xPx (0 oc, with increases in P content for n-GaAs1-xPx (x ≤ 0.4) and decreases in Voc for ≤ 0.6. Under 88 mW/cm2 of ELH-type.(3350 K color temperature with a dichroic rear reflector) tungsten-halogen irradiation, we observe that n-GaAs0.72P0.28 anodes exhibit a Voc of 0.95-0.99 V, short-circuit currents of 15-17 mA/cm2, and energy conversion efficiencies of 13.0 ± 1.0%. Irradiation at 632.8-nm yields monochromatic conversion efficiencies of greater than 30%, and solar irradiation (85-100 mW/cm2) yields efficiencies of 11.0 ± 1.0% in 1.0 M KOH/1.0 M Se2-/0.-01 M Se2 2- solutions. The n-GaAs0.72P0.28 anodes exhibit stable photocurrent for passage of over 3000 C/cm2 at AM1 photocurrent densities. Ru(H2O)6 3+ ions are effective in improving photocurrent-voltage characteristics for H-GaAs1-xPx (0 ≤ x <1) anodes but have no effect for n-GaP, indicating chemical interactions of the Ru ion with As or As oxide sites at the semiconductor/liquid junction. Direct comparison of Voc for n-GaAs1-xPx/Au junctions with n-GaAs1-xPx/Se2- barriers indicates that liquid junctions have higher Voc values than some Schottky barriers and that pinning of the Fermi level by intrinsic surface states may not play a dominant role in determining interface parameters for these junctions.

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