Temporal focusing of ultrashort pulses has been shown to enable wide-field depth-resolved two-photon fluorescence microscopy. In this process, an entire plane in the sample is selectively excited by introduction of geometrical dispersion to an ultrashort pulse. Many applications, such as multiphoton lithography, uncaging or region-of-interest imaging, require, however, illumination patterns which significantly differ from homogeneous excitation of an entire plane in the sample. Here we consider the effects of such spatial modulation of a temporally focused excitation pattern on both the generated excitation pattern and on its axial confinement. The transition in the axial response between line illumination and wide-field illumination is characterized both theoretically and experimentally. For 2D patterning, we show that in the case of amplitude-only modulation the axial response is generally similar to that of wide-field illumination, while for phase-and-amplitude modulation the axial response slightly deteriorates when the phase variation is rapid, a regime which is shown to be relevant to excitation by beams shaped using spatial light modulators. Finally, general guidelines for the use of spatially modulated temporally focused excitation are presented.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics