Thallium chalcogenide-based wide-band-gap semiconductors

TlGaSe 2 for radiation detectors

Simon Johnsen, Zhifu Liu, John A. Peters, Jung Hwan Song, Sebastian C. Peter, Christos D. Malliakas, Nam Ki Cho, Hosub Jin, Arthur J Freeman, Bruce W. Wessels, Mercouri G Kanatzidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The wide-band-gap semiconductor thallium gallium selenide (TlGaSe 2) is promising for X-ray and γ-ray detection. In this study, the synthesis and crystal growth of semiconducting TlGaSe2 was accomplished using a stoichiometric combination of TlSe, Ga, and Se and a modified Bridgman method. These large detector-grade crystals can be synthesized and cut to dimensions appropriate for a detector. The crystals have mirror-like cleaved surfaces and are transparent red, in agreement with a band gap of 1.95 eV observed in absorption measurements. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction refinements confirm that TlGaSe2 crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group with a layered crystal structure consisting of planes of GaSe 4 corner-sharing tetrahedra connected by weak Tl-Se bonds. Electronic band structure calculations made using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with the screened-exchange local density approximation, including spin orbit coupling, indicate the unusual characteristic of the hole effective mass being lower than that of the electrons. Photoconductivity measurements on the grown TlGaSe2 crystals show mobility-lifetime (μτ) products of electrons and holes approaching the values of the state-of-the-art commercial material Cd0.9Zn0.1Te. The promising properties of this material system are confirmed by the ability of a TlGaSe2-based detector to show good signal response to X-rays and resolve Ag K radiation energetically.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3120-3128
Number of pages9
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume23
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 28 2011

Fingerprint

Thallium
Radiation detectors
Detectors
Crystals
X rays
Local density approximation
Crystal growth from melt
Electrons
Photoconductivity
Gallium
Crystallization
Crystal growth
Band structure
Mirrors
Orbits
Energy gap
Crystal structure
Single crystals
Radiation
X ray diffraction

Keywords

  • chalcogenide
  • crystal growth
  • gamma-ray detector
  • photoconductivity
  • radiation detector
  • semiconductor
  • TlGaSe

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Johnsen, S., Liu, Z., Peters, J. A., Song, J. H., Peter, S. C., Malliakas, C. D., ... Kanatzidis, M. G. (2011). Thallium chalcogenide-based wide-band-gap semiconductors: TlGaSe 2 for radiation detectors. Chemistry of Materials, 23(12), 3120-3128. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm200946y

Thallium chalcogenide-based wide-band-gap semiconductors : TlGaSe 2 for radiation detectors. / Johnsen, Simon; Liu, Zhifu; Peters, John A.; Song, Jung Hwan; Peter, Sebastian C.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Cho, Nam Ki; Jin, Hosub; Freeman, Arthur J; Wessels, Bruce W.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

In: Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 23, No. 12, 28.06.2011, p. 3120-3128.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Johnsen, S, Liu, Z, Peters, JA, Song, JH, Peter, SC, Malliakas, CD, Cho, NK, Jin, H, Freeman, AJ, Wessels, BW & Kanatzidis, MG 2011, 'Thallium chalcogenide-based wide-band-gap semiconductors: TlGaSe 2 for radiation detectors', Chemistry of Materials, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 3120-3128. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm200946y
Johnsen S, Liu Z, Peters JA, Song JH, Peter SC, Malliakas CD et al. Thallium chalcogenide-based wide-band-gap semiconductors: TlGaSe 2 for radiation detectors. Chemistry of Materials. 2011 Jun 28;23(12):3120-3128. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm200946y
Johnsen, Simon ; Liu, Zhifu ; Peters, John A. ; Song, Jung Hwan ; Peter, Sebastian C. ; Malliakas, Christos D. ; Cho, Nam Ki ; Jin, Hosub ; Freeman, Arthur J ; Wessels, Bruce W. ; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. / Thallium chalcogenide-based wide-band-gap semiconductors : TlGaSe 2 for radiation detectors. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2011 ; Vol. 23, No. 12. pp. 3120-3128.
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abstract = "The wide-band-gap semiconductor thallium gallium selenide (TlGaSe 2) is promising for X-ray and γ-ray detection. In this study, the synthesis and crystal growth of semiconducting TlGaSe2 was accomplished using a stoichiometric combination of TlSe, Ga, and Se and a modified Bridgman method. These large detector-grade crystals can be synthesized and cut to dimensions appropriate for a detector. The crystals have mirror-like cleaved surfaces and are transparent red, in agreement with a band gap of 1.95 eV observed in absorption measurements. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction refinements confirm that TlGaSe2 crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group with a layered crystal structure consisting of planes of GaSe 4 corner-sharing tetrahedra connected by weak Tl-Se bonds. Electronic band structure calculations made using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with the screened-exchange local density approximation, including spin orbit coupling, indicate the unusual characteristic of the hole effective mass being lower than that of the electrons. Photoconductivity measurements on the grown TlGaSe2 crystals show mobility-lifetime (μτ) products of electrons and holes approaching the values of the state-of-the-art commercial material Cd0.9Zn0.1Te. The promising properties of this material system are confirmed by the ability of a TlGaSe2-based detector to show good signal response to X-rays and resolve Ag K radiation energetically.",
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