The Renaissance of Halide Perovskites and Their Evolution as Emerging Semiconductors

Constantinos C. Stoumpos, Mercouri G Kanatzidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

257 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

ConspectusThe recent re-emergence of the halide perovskites, of the type AMX3, derives from a sea-changing breakthrough in the field of photovoltaics that has led to a whole new generation of solar devices with remarkable power conversion efficiency. The success in the field of photovoltaics has led to intense, combined research efforts to better understand these materials both from the fundamental chemistry and physics points of view and for the improvement of applied functional device engineering. This groundswell of activity has breathed new life into this long-known but largely "forgotten" class of perovskites. The impressive achievements of halide perovskites in photovoltaics, as well as other optoelectronic applications, stem from an unusually favorable combination of optical and electronic properties, with the ability to be solution processed into films. This defines them as a brand new class of semiconductors that can rival or exceed the performance of the venerable classes of III-V and II-IV semiconductors, which presently dominate the industries of applied optoelectronics.Our aim in this Account is to highlight the basic pillars that define the chemistry of the halide perovskites and their unconventional electronic properties through the prism of structure-property relationships. We focus on the synthetic requirements under which a halide perovskite can exist and emphasize how the synthetic conditions can determine the structural integrity and the bulk properties of the perovskites. Then we proceed to discuss the origins of the optical and electronic phenomena, using the perovskite crystal structure as a guide. Some of the most remarkable features of the perovskites dealt with in this Account include the evolution of a unique type of defect, which gives rise to superlattices. These can enhance or diminish the fluorescence properties of the perovskites. For example, the exotic self-doping ability of the Sn-based perovskites allows them to adopt electrical properties from semiconducting to metallic. We attempt to rationalize how these properties can be tuned and partially controlled through targeted synthetic procedures for use in electronic and optical devices. In addition, we address open scientific questions that pose big obstacles in understanding the fundamentals of perovskites. We anticipate that the answers to these questions will provide the impetus upon which future research directions will be founded.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2791-2802
Number of pages12
JournalAccounts of Chemical Research
Volume48
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 20 2015

Fingerprint

Electronic properties
Optoelectronic devices
Semiconductor materials
Superlattices
Structural integrity
Optical devices
Prisms
Conversion efficiency
Electric properties
Physics
Optical properties
Crystal structure
Fluorescence
Doping (additives)
Defects
Industry
Renaissance
perovskite
Direction compound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

The Renaissance of Halide Perovskites and Their Evolution as Emerging Semiconductors. / Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

In: Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 48, No. 10, 20.10.2015, p. 2791-2802.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{dd05447fccc340cab0e2a14de7e749f6,
title = "The Renaissance of Halide Perovskites and Their Evolution as Emerging Semiconductors",
abstract = "ConspectusThe recent re-emergence of the halide perovskites, of the type AMX3, derives from a sea-changing breakthrough in the field of photovoltaics that has led to a whole new generation of solar devices with remarkable power conversion efficiency. The success in the field of photovoltaics has led to intense, combined research efforts to better understand these materials both from the fundamental chemistry and physics points of view and for the improvement of applied functional device engineering. This groundswell of activity has breathed new life into this long-known but largely {"}forgotten{"} class of perovskites. The impressive achievements of halide perovskites in photovoltaics, as well as other optoelectronic applications, stem from an unusually favorable combination of optical and electronic properties, with the ability to be solution processed into films. This defines them as a brand new class of semiconductors that can rival or exceed the performance of the venerable classes of III-V and II-IV semiconductors, which presently dominate the industries of applied optoelectronics.Our aim in this Account is to highlight the basic pillars that define the chemistry of the halide perovskites and their unconventional electronic properties through the prism of structure-property relationships. We focus on the synthetic requirements under which a halide perovskite can exist and emphasize how the synthetic conditions can determine the structural integrity and the bulk properties of the perovskites. Then we proceed to discuss the origins of the optical and electronic phenomena, using the perovskite crystal structure as a guide. Some of the most remarkable features of the perovskites dealt with in this Account include the evolution of a unique type of defect, which gives rise to superlattices. These can enhance or diminish the fluorescence properties of the perovskites. For example, the exotic self-doping ability of the Sn-based perovskites allows them to adopt electrical properties from semiconducting to metallic. We attempt to rationalize how these properties can be tuned and partially controlled through targeted synthetic procedures for use in electronic and optical devices. In addition, we address open scientific questions that pose big obstacles in understanding the fundamentals of perovskites. We anticipate that the answers to these questions will provide the impetus upon which future research directions will be founded.",
author = "Stoumpos, {Constantinos C.} and Kanatzidis, {Mercouri G}",
year = "2015",
month = "10",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00229",
language = "English",
volume = "48",
pages = "2791--2802",
journal = "Accounts of Chemical Research",
issn = "0001-4842",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Renaissance of Halide Perovskites and Their Evolution as Emerging Semiconductors

AU - Stoumpos, Constantinos C.

AU - Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

PY - 2015/10/20

Y1 - 2015/10/20

N2 - ConspectusThe recent re-emergence of the halide perovskites, of the type AMX3, derives from a sea-changing breakthrough in the field of photovoltaics that has led to a whole new generation of solar devices with remarkable power conversion efficiency. The success in the field of photovoltaics has led to intense, combined research efforts to better understand these materials both from the fundamental chemistry and physics points of view and for the improvement of applied functional device engineering. This groundswell of activity has breathed new life into this long-known but largely "forgotten" class of perovskites. The impressive achievements of halide perovskites in photovoltaics, as well as other optoelectronic applications, stem from an unusually favorable combination of optical and electronic properties, with the ability to be solution processed into films. This defines them as a brand new class of semiconductors that can rival or exceed the performance of the venerable classes of III-V and II-IV semiconductors, which presently dominate the industries of applied optoelectronics.Our aim in this Account is to highlight the basic pillars that define the chemistry of the halide perovskites and their unconventional electronic properties through the prism of structure-property relationships. We focus on the synthetic requirements under which a halide perovskite can exist and emphasize how the synthetic conditions can determine the structural integrity and the bulk properties of the perovskites. Then we proceed to discuss the origins of the optical and electronic phenomena, using the perovskite crystal structure as a guide. Some of the most remarkable features of the perovskites dealt with in this Account include the evolution of a unique type of defect, which gives rise to superlattices. These can enhance or diminish the fluorescence properties of the perovskites. For example, the exotic self-doping ability of the Sn-based perovskites allows them to adopt electrical properties from semiconducting to metallic. We attempt to rationalize how these properties can be tuned and partially controlled through targeted synthetic procedures for use in electronic and optical devices. In addition, we address open scientific questions that pose big obstacles in understanding the fundamentals of perovskites. We anticipate that the answers to these questions will provide the impetus upon which future research directions will be founded.

AB - ConspectusThe recent re-emergence of the halide perovskites, of the type AMX3, derives from a sea-changing breakthrough in the field of photovoltaics that has led to a whole new generation of solar devices with remarkable power conversion efficiency. The success in the field of photovoltaics has led to intense, combined research efforts to better understand these materials both from the fundamental chemistry and physics points of view and for the improvement of applied functional device engineering. This groundswell of activity has breathed new life into this long-known but largely "forgotten" class of perovskites. The impressive achievements of halide perovskites in photovoltaics, as well as other optoelectronic applications, stem from an unusually favorable combination of optical and electronic properties, with the ability to be solution processed into films. This defines them as a brand new class of semiconductors that can rival or exceed the performance of the venerable classes of III-V and II-IV semiconductors, which presently dominate the industries of applied optoelectronics.Our aim in this Account is to highlight the basic pillars that define the chemistry of the halide perovskites and their unconventional electronic properties through the prism of structure-property relationships. We focus on the synthetic requirements under which a halide perovskite can exist and emphasize how the synthetic conditions can determine the structural integrity and the bulk properties of the perovskites. Then we proceed to discuss the origins of the optical and electronic phenomena, using the perovskite crystal structure as a guide. Some of the most remarkable features of the perovskites dealt with in this Account include the evolution of a unique type of defect, which gives rise to superlattices. These can enhance or diminish the fluorescence properties of the perovskites. For example, the exotic self-doping ability of the Sn-based perovskites allows them to adopt electrical properties from semiconducting to metallic. We attempt to rationalize how these properties can be tuned and partially controlled through targeted synthetic procedures for use in electronic and optical devices. In addition, we address open scientific questions that pose big obstacles in understanding the fundamentals of perovskites. We anticipate that the answers to these questions will provide the impetus upon which future research directions will be founded.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84945928575&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84945928575&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00229

DO - 10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00229

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84945928575

VL - 48

SP - 2791

EP - 2802

JO - Accounts of Chemical Research

JF - Accounts of Chemical Research

SN - 0001-4842

IS - 10

ER -