The role of band bending in affecting the surface recombination velocities for Si(111) in contact with aqueous acidic electrolytes

David J. Michalak, Florian Gstrein, Nathan S Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The role of band bending in affecting surface recombination velocity measurements has been evaluated by combining barrier height data with charge-carrier lifetime measurements for Si(111) surfaces in contact with a variety of acidic aqueous electrolytes. Charge-carrier lifetimes and thus surface recombination velocities have been measured by contactless radio frequency photoconductivity decay techniques for long bulk lifetime n-Si(111) samples in contact with 11 M (40% by weight) NH4F(aq), buffered (pH = 5) HF(aq), 27 M (48% by weight) HF(aq), or concentrated 18 M H 2SO4. Regardless of the sample history or surface condition, long charge-carrier lifetimes were observed for n-Si(111) surfaces in contact with 11 M NH4F(aq) or buffered HF(aq). On the basis of previous barrier height measurements, this behavior is consistent with the formation of an electrolyte-induced surface accumulation layer that reduces the rate of steady-state surface recombination even in the presence of a significant density of surface trap sites. A straightforward evaluation of the surface trap state density from the measured surface recombination velocities, S, is thus precluded for such Si/liquid contacts. In contrast, a wide range of 5 values, depending on the history of the sample and the state of the surface, were observed for Zi-Si(111) surfaces in contact with 27 M HF(aq). These results in conjunction with previously measured barrier height data indicate that the charge-carrier lifetimes measured for n-Si(111) in contact with 27 M HF(aq) can be directly correlated with the surface condition and the effective surface-state trap density. These conclusions were confirmed by measurements of the apparent S values of n-Si(111) surfaces in contact with various solutions in the presence of the known deep trap, Cu. For Si(111)/HF(aq) contacts, very high (≥920 ± 270 cm s-1) surface recombination velocities were observed when 0.16 mM (10 ppm) Cu2+ was in the solution and/or adsorbed onto the Si(111) surface as Cu0 deposits, whereas low (100 ± 75 or 225 ± 20 cm s-1) apparent surface recombination velocities were measured for Cu-contaminated Si(111) samples in contact with 0.16 mM (10 ppm) Cu2+-containing 11 M NH4F(aq) or BHF(aq) solutions, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5911-5921
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume112
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 17 2008

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Electrolytes
electrolytes
Carrier lifetime
Charge carriers
carrier lifetime
charge carriers
traps
Surface states
Contacts (fluid mechanics)
histories
Photoconductivity
Velocity measurement
velocity measurement
photoconductivity
Deposits
radio frequencies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Energy(all)

Cite this

The role of band bending in affecting the surface recombination velocities for Si(111) in contact with aqueous acidic electrolytes. / Michalak, David J.; Gstrein, Florian; Lewis, Nathan S.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 112, No. 15, 17.04.2008, p. 5911-5921.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The role of band bending in affecting surface recombination velocity measurements has been evaluated by combining barrier height data with charge-carrier lifetime measurements for Si(111) surfaces in contact with a variety of acidic aqueous electrolytes. Charge-carrier lifetimes and thus surface recombination velocities have been measured by contactless radio frequency photoconductivity decay techniques for long bulk lifetime n-Si(111) samples in contact with 11 M (40{\%} by weight) NH4F(aq), buffered (pH = 5) HF(aq), 27 M (48{\%} by weight) HF(aq), or concentrated 18 M H 2SO4. Regardless of the sample history or surface condition, long charge-carrier lifetimes were observed for n-Si(111) surfaces in contact with 11 M NH4F(aq) or buffered HF(aq). On the basis of previous barrier height measurements, this behavior is consistent with the formation of an electrolyte-induced surface accumulation layer that reduces the rate of steady-state surface recombination even in the presence of a significant density of surface trap sites. A straightforward evaluation of the surface trap state density from the measured surface recombination velocities, S, is thus precluded for such Si/liquid contacts. In contrast, a wide range of 5 values, depending on the history of the sample and the state of the surface, were observed for Zi-Si(111) surfaces in contact with 27 M HF(aq). These results in conjunction with previously measured barrier height data indicate that the charge-carrier lifetimes measured for n-Si(111) in contact with 27 M HF(aq) can be directly correlated with the surface condition and the effective surface-state trap density. These conclusions were confirmed by measurements of the apparent S values of n-Si(111) surfaces in contact with various solutions in the presence of the known deep trap, Cu. For Si(111)/HF(aq) contacts, very high (≥920 ± 270 cm s-1) surface recombination velocities were observed when 0.16 mM (10 ppm) Cu2+ was in the solution and/or adsorbed onto the Si(111) surface as Cu0 deposits, whereas low (100 ± 75 or 225 ± 20 cm s-1) apparent surface recombination velocities were measured for Cu-contaminated Si(111) samples in contact with 0.16 mM (10 ppm) Cu2+-containing 11 M NH4F(aq) or BHF(aq) solutions, respectively.",
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N2 - The role of band bending in affecting surface recombination velocity measurements has been evaluated by combining barrier height data with charge-carrier lifetime measurements for Si(111) surfaces in contact with a variety of acidic aqueous electrolytes. Charge-carrier lifetimes and thus surface recombination velocities have been measured by contactless radio frequency photoconductivity decay techniques for long bulk lifetime n-Si(111) samples in contact with 11 M (40% by weight) NH4F(aq), buffered (pH = 5) HF(aq), 27 M (48% by weight) HF(aq), or concentrated 18 M H 2SO4. Regardless of the sample history or surface condition, long charge-carrier lifetimes were observed for n-Si(111) surfaces in contact with 11 M NH4F(aq) or buffered HF(aq). On the basis of previous barrier height measurements, this behavior is consistent with the formation of an electrolyte-induced surface accumulation layer that reduces the rate of steady-state surface recombination even in the presence of a significant density of surface trap sites. A straightforward evaluation of the surface trap state density from the measured surface recombination velocities, S, is thus precluded for such Si/liquid contacts. In contrast, a wide range of 5 values, depending on the history of the sample and the state of the surface, were observed for Zi-Si(111) surfaces in contact with 27 M HF(aq). These results in conjunction with previously measured barrier height data indicate that the charge-carrier lifetimes measured for n-Si(111) in contact with 27 M HF(aq) can be directly correlated with the surface condition and the effective surface-state trap density. These conclusions were confirmed by measurements of the apparent S values of n-Si(111) surfaces in contact with various solutions in the presence of the known deep trap, Cu. For Si(111)/HF(aq) contacts, very high (≥920 ± 270 cm s-1) surface recombination velocities were observed when 0.16 mM (10 ppm) Cu2+ was in the solution and/or adsorbed onto the Si(111) surface as Cu0 deposits, whereas low (100 ± 75 or 225 ± 20 cm s-1) apparent surface recombination velocities were measured for Cu-contaminated Si(111) samples in contact with 0.16 mM (10 ppm) Cu2+-containing 11 M NH4F(aq) or BHF(aq) solutions, respectively.

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