The structural basis for enhanced silver reflectance in Koi fish scale and skin

Dvir Gur, Ben Leshem, Dan Oron, Steve Weiner, Lia Addadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fish have evolved biogenic multilayer reflectors composed of stacks of intracellular anhydrous guanine crystals separated by cytoplasm, to produce the silvery luster of their skin and scales. Here we compare two different variants of the Japanese Koi fish; one of them with enhanced reflectivity. Our aim is to determine how biology modulates reflectivity, and from this to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the structure and properties governing the intensity of silver reflectance. We measured the reflectance of individual scales with a custom-made microscope, and then for each individual scale we characterized the structure of the guanine crystal/cytoplasm layers using high-resolution cryo-SEM. The measured reflectance and the structural-geometrical parameters were used to calculate the reflectance of each scale, and the results were compared to the experimental measurements. We show that enhanced reflectivity is obtained with the same basic guanine crystal/cytoplasm stacks, but the structural arrangement between the stack, inside the stacks, and relative to the scale surface is varied when reflectivity is enhanced. Finally, we propose a model that incorporates the basic building block parameters, the crystal orientation inside the tissue, and the resulting reflectance and explains the mechanistic basis for reflectance enhancement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17236-17242
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume136
Issue number49
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 10 2014

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Guanine
Silver
Fish
Skin
Cytoplasm
Fishes
Crystals
Crystal orientation
Multilayers
Microscopes
Tissue
Scanning electron microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Catalysis
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

The structural basis for enhanced silver reflectance in Koi fish scale and skin. / Gur, Dvir; Leshem, Ben; Oron, Dan; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 136, No. 49, 10.12.2014, p. 17236-17242.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gur, Dvir ; Leshem, Ben ; Oron, Dan ; Weiner, Steve ; Addadi, Lia. / The structural basis for enhanced silver reflectance in Koi fish scale and skin. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014 ; Vol. 136, No. 49. pp. 17236-17242.
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