Thin film properties and surface morphology of metal free phthalocyanine films grown by organic molecular beam deposition

S. M. Bayliss, S. Heutz, Gary Rumbles, T. S. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

83 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The structure, optical properties and surface morphology of thin films of metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) deposited in an ultra-high vacuum environment by organic molecular beam deposition have been studied using a variety of ex-situ techniques. The growth conditions have a strong influence on the properties of the films. H2Pc undergoes a phase transition (α → β) at a deposition temperature of ~ 330 °C, or upon post annealing a film grown at room temperature. Both the structure and optical properties of the films change and powder X-ray diffraction, electronic absorption spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are used to characterise the differences between the two phases. Atomic force microscopy and Nomarski interference microscopy show that the lower temperature α- phase is characterised by a smooth morphology with spherical islands that show no apparent long-range order. By contrast, the β-phase has a much greater root mean square roughness and long thin needle-like crystals are observed on the surface of the films. The morphology of the β-phase depends on the method of preparation and there are two distinct types, β1 and β2. The crystallites show a preferential orientation and alignment with respect to each other for growth at room temperature followed by annealing (β1), but are randomly oriented for films grown at elevated substrate temperatures (β2).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3673-3676
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume1
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 1999

Fingerprint

Molecular beams
molecular beams
Surface morphology
Metals
Thin films
thin films
metals
Temperature
Optical properties
Annealing
optical properties
annealing
Photoluminescence spectroscopy
Ultrahigh vacuum
room temperature
Absorption spectroscopy
Crystallites
needles
Crystal orientation
Needles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

Thin film properties and surface morphology of metal free phthalocyanine films grown by organic molecular beam deposition. / Bayliss, S. M.; Heutz, S.; Rumbles, Gary; Jones, T. S.

In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 1, No. 15, 01.08.1999, p. 3673-3676.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{928e9d15add34c8fbfe53f474233f866,
title = "Thin film properties and surface morphology of metal free phthalocyanine films grown by organic molecular beam deposition",
abstract = "The structure, optical properties and surface morphology of thin films of metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) deposited in an ultra-high vacuum environment by organic molecular beam deposition have been studied using a variety of ex-situ techniques. The growth conditions have a strong influence on the properties of the films. H2Pc undergoes a phase transition (α → β) at a deposition temperature of ~ 330 °C, or upon post annealing a film grown at room temperature. Both the structure and optical properties of the films change and powder X-ray diffraction, electronic absorption spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are used to characterise the differences between the two phases. Atomic force microscopy and Nomarski interference microscopy show that the lower temperature α- phase is characterised by a smooth morphology with spherical islands that show no apparent long-range order. By contrast, the β-phase has a much greater root mean square roughness and long thin needle-like crystals are observed on the surface of the films. The morphology of the β-phase depends on the method of preparation and there are two distinct types, β1 and β2. The crystallites show a preferential orientation and alignment with respect to each other for growth at room temperature followed by annealing (β1), but are randomly oriented for films grown at elevated substrate temperatures (β2).",
author = "Bayliss, {S. M.} and S. Heutz and Gary Rumbles and Jones, {T. S.}",
year = "1999",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1039/a904089g",
language = "English",
volume = "1",
pages = "3673--3676",
journal = "Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics",
issn = "1463-9076",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "15",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Thin film properties and surface morphology of metal free phthalocyanine films grown by organic molecular beam deposition

AU - Bayliss, S. M.

AU - Heutz, S.

AU - Rumbles, Gary

AU - Jones, T. S.

PY - 1999/8/1

Y1 - 1999/8/1

N2 - The structure, optical properties and surface morphology of thin films of metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) deposited in an ultra-high vacuum environment by organic molecular beam deposition have been studied using a variety of ex-situ techniques. The growth conditions have a strong influence on the properties of the films. H2Pc undergoes a phase transition (α → β) at a deposition temperature of ~ 330 °C, or upon post annealing a film grown at room temperature. Both the structure and optical properties of the films change and powder X-ray diffraction, electronic absorption spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are used to characterise the differences between the two phases. Atomic force microscopy and Nomarski interference microscopy show that the lower temperature α- phase is characterised by a smooth morphology with spherical islands that show no apparent long-range order. By contrast, the β-phase has a much greater root mean square roughness and long thin needle-like crystals are observed on the surface of the films. The morphology of the β-phase depends on the method of preparation and there are two distinct types, β1 and β2. The crystallites show a preferential orientation and alignment with respect to each other for growth at room temperature followed by annealing (β1), but are randomly oriented for films grown at elevated substrate temperatures (β2).

AB - The structure, optical properties and surface morphology of thin films of metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) deposited in an ultra-high vacuum environment by organic molecular beam deposition have been studied using a variety of ex-situ techniques. The growth conditions have a strong influence on the properties of the films. H2Pc undergoes a phase transition (α → β) at a deposition temperature of ~ 330 °C, or upon post annealing a film grown at room temperature. Both the structure and optical properties of the films change and powder X-ray diffraction, electronic absorption spectroscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are used to characterise the differences between the two phases. Atomic force microscopy and Nomarski interference microscopy show that the lower temperature α- phase is characterised by a smooth morphology with spherical islands that show no apparent long-range order. By contrast, the β-phase has a much greater root mean square roughness and long thin needle-like crystals are observed on the surface of the films. The morphology of the β-phase depends on the method of preparation and there are two distinct types, β1 and β2. The crystallites show a preferential orientation and alignment with respect to each other for growth at room temperature followed by annealing (β1), but are randomly oriented for films grown at elevated substrate temperatures (β2).

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033179023&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033179023&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1039/a904089g

DO - 10.1039/a904089g

M3 - Article

VL - 1

SP - 3673

EP - 3676

JO - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

JF - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

SN - 1463-9076

IS - 15

ER -