Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Li 4Ti 5O 12: Effect of wall structure on electrochemical properties

Erin M. Sorensen, Scott J. Barry, Ha Kyun Jung, James R. Rondinelli, John T. Vaughey, Kenneth R. Poeppelmeier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

291 Citations (Scopus)


Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Li 4Ti 5O 12 was synthesized using poly(methyl methacrylate) colloidal crystal templates and metal organic aqueous precursors. 3DOM structures of various filling fractions and wall thicknesses were synthesized, and the materials evaluated in lithium ion battery cells. The 3DOM architecture was found to markedly improve the rate capability of Li 4Ti 5O 12 when the voids of the template were underfilled or perfectly filled. When the template voids were overfilled, the performance of the electrode was similar to that of nonporous Li 4Ti 5O 12. We believe the enhanced rate capability results from the interconnected network of nanometer scale walls, which create short lithium diffusion distances and better contact with the electrolyte. SEM and TEM micrographs reveal that the nature of the wall structure forms low angle grain boundaries in 3DOM Li 4Ti 5O 12, which enhances conduction pathways in the particle, especially at high rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)482-489
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 24 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

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