Tl2Hg3Q4 (Q = S, Se, and Te): High-density, wide-band-gap semiconductors

Simon Johnsen, Sebastian C. Peter, Sandy L. Nguyen, Jung Hwan Song, Hosub Jin, Arthur J Freeman, Mercouri G Kanatzidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present the synthesis, crystal structures, and physical properties of Tl2Hg3Q4 (Q = S, Se, and Te). The incongruently melting Tl2Hg3Q4 crystals were grown in a TlxQ flux. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in a monoclinic cell with a layered structure, adopting the space group C2/c with a = 11.493(2) Å, b = 6.6953(13) Å, c = 12.937(3) Å, β = 114.98(3)° for Tl2Hg3S4, a = 11.977(2) Å, b = 6.9264(14) Å, c = 13.203(3) Å, β = 116.36(3)° for Tl2Hg3Se4 and a = 12.648(3) Å, b = 7.3574(15) Å, c = 13.701(3) Å, β = 117.48(3)° for Tl 2Hg3Te4. The structures feature infinite chains of [Hg3Q4]2-, which are linked into layers by charge balancing Tl atoms. The compounds have very high densities (>8.3 g/cm3) with experimentally determined band gaps of 2.05, 1.57, and 0.90 eV for Q = S, Se, and Te, respectively. Using the refined crystal structures, we performed detailed band structure calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) level, using the screened-exchange local density approximation (sx-LDA). The results indicate that the compounds are semiconductors with the sulfur analog, having an indirect band gap, and the selenium and tellurium analogs, having direct energy band gaps. There is strong Hg 6s and Tl 6p orbital character in the conduction band minimum, while the valence band maximum has predominantly chalcogen p state character mixed in with a Tl 6s contribution. The band structure calculations support the experimental observation of a narrowing of the band gap in the series Q = S, Se, and Te, which results from the increasing extension of the outermost chalcogen p orbitals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4375-4383
Number of pages9
JournalChemistry of Materials
Volume23
Issue number19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 11 2011

Fingerprint

Energy gap
Chalcogens
Band structure
Direct analogs
Crystal structure
Tellurium
Local density approximation
Selenium
Valence bands
Conduction bands
Sulfur
Density functional theory
Melting
Physical properties
Semiconductor materials
Fluxes
Atoms
Crystals
Wide band gap semiconductors

Keywords

  • cadmium telluride
  • chalcogenide
  • crystal growth
  • X-ray detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Tl2Hg3Q4 (Q = S, Se, and Te) : High-density, wide-band-gap semiconductors. / Johnsen, Simon; Peter, Sebastian C.; Nguyen, Sandy L.; Song, Jung Hwan; Jin, Hosub; Freeman, Arthur J; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

In: Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 23, No. 19, 11.10.2011, p. 4375-4383.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Johnsen, Simon ; Peter, Sebastian C. ; Nguyen, Sandy L. ; Song, Jung Hwan ; Jin, Hosub ; Freeman, Arthur J ; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. / Tl2Hg3Q4 (Q = S, Se, and Te) : High-density, wide-band-gap semiconductors. In: Chemistry of Materials. 2011 ; Vol. 23, No. 19. pp. 4375-4383.
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abstract = "We present the synthesis, crystal structures, and physical properties of Tl2Hg3Q4 (Q = S, Se, and Te). The incongruently melting Tl2Hg3Q4 crystals were grown in a TlxQ flux. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in a monoclinic cell with a layered structure, adopting the space group C2/c with a = 11.493(2) {\AA}, b = 6.6953(13) {\AA}, c = 12.937(3) {\AA}, β = 114.98(3)° for Tl2Hg3S4, a = 11.977(2) {\AA}, b = 6.9264(14) {\AA}, c = 13.203(3) {\AA}, β = 116.36(3)° for Tl2Hg3Se4 and a = 12.648(3) {\AA}, b = 7.3574(15) {\AA}, c = 13.701(3) {\AA}, β = 117.48(3)° for Tl 2Hg3Te4. The structures feature infinite chains of [Hg3Q4]2-, which are linked into layers by charge balancing Tl atoms. The compounds have very high densities (>8.3 g/cm3) with experimentally determined band gaps of 2.05, 1.57, and 0.90 eV for Q = S, Se, and Te, respectively. Using the refined crystal structures, we performed detailed band structure calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) level, using the screened-exchange local density approximation (sx-LDA). The results indicate that the compounds are semiconductors with the sulfur analog, having an indirect band gap, and the selenium and tellurium analogs, having direct energy band gaps. There is strong Hg 6s and Tl 6p orbital character in the conduction band minimum, while the valence band maximum has predominantly chalcogen p state character mixed in with a Tl 6s contribution. The band structure calculations support the experimental observation of a narrowing of the band gap in the series Q = S, Se, and Te, which results from the increasing extension of the outermost chalcogen p orbitals.",
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T2 - High-density, wide-band-gap semiconductors

AU - Johnsen, Simon

AU - Peter, Sebastian C.

AU - Nguyen, Sandy L.

AU - Song, Jung Hwan

AU - Jin, Hosub

AU - Freeman, Arthur J

AU - Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

PY - 2011/10/11

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N2 - We present the synthesis, crystal structures, and physical properties of Tl2Hg3Q4 (Q = S, Se, and Te). The incongruently melting Tl2Hg3Q4 crystals were grown in a TlxQ flux. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in a monoclinic cell with a layered structure, adopting the space group C2/c with a = 11.493(2) Å, b = 6.6953(13) Å, c = 12.937(3) Å, β = 114.98(3)° for Tl2Hg3S4, a = 11.977(2) Å, b = 6.9264(14) Å, c = 13.203(3) Å, β = 116.36(3)° for Tl2Hg3Se4 and a = 12.648(3) Å, b = 7.3574(15) Å, c = 13.701(3) Å, β = 117.48(3)° for Tl 2Hg3Te4. The structures feature infinite chains of [Hg3Q4]2-, which are linked into layers by charge balancing Tl atoms. The compounds have very high densities (>8.3 g/cm3) with experimentally determined band gaps of 2.05, 1.57, and 0.90 eV for Q = S, Se, and Te, respectively. Using the refined crystal structures, we performed detailed band structure calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) level, using the screened-exchange local density approximation (sx-LDA). The results indicate that the compounds are semiconductors with the sulfur analog, having an indirect band gap, and the selenium and tellurium analogs, having direct energy band gaps. There is strong Hg 6s and Tl 6p orbital character in the conduction band minimum, while the valence band maximum has predominantly chalcogen p state character mixed in with a Tl 6s contribution. The band structure calculations support the experimental observation of a narrowing of the band gap in the series Q = S, Se, and Te, which results from the increasing extension of the outermost chalcogen p orbitals.

AB - We present the synthesis, crystal structures, and physical properties of Tl2Hg3Q4 (Q = S, Se, and Te). The incongruently melting Tl2Hg3Q4 crystals were grown in a TlxQ flux. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in a monoclinic cell with a layered structure, adopting the space group C2/c with a = 11.493(2) Å, b = 6.6953(13) Å, c = 12.937(3) Å, β = 114.98(3)° for Tl2Hg3S4, a = 11.977(2) Å, b = 6.9264(14) Å, c = 13.203(3) Å, β = 116.36(3)° for Tl2Hg3Se4 and a = 12.648(3) Å, b = 7.3574(15) Å, c = 13.701(3) Å, β = 117.48(3)° for Tl 2Hg3Te4. The structures feature infinite chains of [Hg3Q4]2-, which are linked into layers by charge balancing Tl atoms. The compounds have very high densities (>8.3 g/cm3) with experimentally determined band gaps of 2.05, 1.57, and 0.90 eV for Q = S, Se, and Te, respectively. Using the refined crystal structures, we performed detailed band structure calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) level, using the screened-exchange local density approximation (sx-LDA). The results indicate that the compounds are semiconductors with the sulfur analog, having an indirect band gap, and the selenium and tellurium analogs, having direct energy band gaps. There is strong Hg 6s and Tl 6p orbital character in the conduction band minimum, while the valence band maximum has predominantly chalcogen p state character mixed in with a Tl 6s contribution. The band structure calculations support the experimental observation of a narrowing of the band gap in the series Q = S, Se, and Te, which results from the increasing extension of the outermost chalcogen p orbitals.

KW - cadmium telluride

KW - chalcogenide

KW - crystal growth

KW - X-ray detector

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