Transparent conducting oxides for photovoltaics: Manipulation of fermi level,work function and energy band alignment

Andreas Klein, Christoph Körber, Andŕe Wachau, Frank Säuberlich, Yvonne Gassenbauer, Steven P. Harvey, Diana E. Proffit, Thomas O. Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

251 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Doping limits, band gaps, work functions and energy band alignments of undoped and donor-doped transparent conducting oxides ZnO, In2O3, and SnO2 as accessed by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) are summarized and compared. The presented collection provides an extensive data set of technologically relevant electronic properties of photovoltaic transparent electrode materials and illustrates how these relate to the underlying defect chemistry, the dependence of surface dipoles on crystallographic orientation and/or surface termination, and Fermi level pinning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4892-4914
Number of pages23
JournalMaterials
Volume3
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Keywords

  • Band alignment
  • Doping
  • Solar cells
  • Transparent conducting oxides
  • Work function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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