Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nanorod arrays with large absolute amplitude

Peijun Guo, Richard D Schaller, John B. Ketterson, Robert P. H. Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

All-optical control of plasmons can enable optical switches with high speeds, small footprints and high on/off ratios. Here we demonstrate ultrafast plasmon modulation in the near-infrared (NIR) to mid-infrared (MIR) range by intraband pumping of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs). We observe redshifts of localized surface plasmon resonances arising from a change of the plasma frequency of ITO, which is governed by the conduction band non-parabolicity. We generalize the plasma frequency for non-parabolic bands, quantitatively model the fluence-dependent plasma frequency shifts, and show that different from noble metals, the lower electron density in ITO enables a remarkable change of electron distributions, yielding a significant plasma frequency modulation and concomitant large transient bleaches and induced absorptions, which can be tuned spectrally by tailoring the ITO-NRA geometry. The low electron heat capacity explains the sub-picosecond kinetics that is much faster than noble metals. Our work demonstrates a new scheme to control infrared plasmons for optical switching, telecommunications and sensing.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Photonics
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Feb 22 2016

Fingerprint

Plasmons
plasma frequencies
Tin oxides
Nanorods
plasmons
indium oxides
Indium
tin oxides
nanorods
Infrared radiation
Plasmas
Precious metals
ITO (semiconductors)
noble metals
optical control
Optical switches
Electrons
Surface plasmon resonance
Frequency modulation
footprints

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

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abstract = "All-optical control of plasmons can enable optical switches with high speeds, small footprints and high on/off ratios. Here we demonstrate ultrafast plasmon modulation in the near-infrared (NIR) to mid-infrared (MIR) range by intraband pumping of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs). We observe redshifts of localized surface plasmon resonances arising from a change of the plasma frequency of ITO, which is governed by the conduction band non-parabolicity. We generalize the plasma frequency for non-parabolic bands, quantitatively model the fluence-dependent plasma frequency shifts, and show that different from noble metals, the lower electron density in ITO enables a remarkable change of electron distributions, yielding a significant plasma frequency modulation and concomitant large transient bleaches and induced absorptions, which can be tuned spectrally by tailoring the ITO-NRA geometry. The low electron heat capacity explains the sub-picosecond kinetics that is much faster than noble metals. Our work demonstrates a new scheme to control infrared plasmons for optical switching, telecommunications and sensing.",
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