Understanding Film Formation Morphology and Orientation in High Member 2D Ruddlesden–Popper Perovskites for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

Chan Myae Myae Soe, Wanyi Nie, Constantinos C. Stoumpos, Hsinhan Tsai, Jean Christophe Blancon, Fangze Liu, Jacky Even, Tobin J Marks, Aditya D. Mohite, Mercouri G Kanatzidis

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2D Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) perovskites have recently emerged as promising candidates for hybrid perovskite photovoltaic cells, realizing power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 10% with technologically relevant stability. To achieve solar cell performance comparable to the state-of-the-art 3D perovskite cells, it is highly desirable to increase the conductivity and lower the optical bandgap for enhanced near-IR region absorption by increasing the perovskite slab thickness. Here, the use of the 2D higher member (n = 5) RP perovskite (n-butyl-NH3)2(MeNH3)4Pb5I16 in depositing highly oriented thin films from dimethylformamide/dimethylsulfoxide mixtures using the hot-casting method is reported. In addition, they exhibit superior environmental stability over thin films of their 3D counterpart. These films are assembled into high-efficiency solar cells with an open-circuit voltage of ≈1 V and PCE of up to 10%. This is achieved by fine-tuning the solvent ratio, crystal growth orientation, and grain size in the thin films. The enhanced performance of the optimized devices is ascribed to the growth of micrometer-sized grains as opposed to more typically obtained nanometer grain size and highly crystalline, densely packed microstructures with the majority of the inorganic slabs preferentially aligned out of plane to the substrate, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering mapping.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1700979
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 5 2018



  • 2D perovskites
  • microstructure
  • solar cells
  • thin films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)

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