Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells

Srijata Sarkar, Lin Zhang, Prasad Subramaniam, Ki Bum Lee, Eric Garfunkel, Pamela A. Ohman Strickland, Gediminas Mainelis, Paul J. Lioy, Teresa D. Tetley, Kian Fan Chung, Junfeng Zhang, Mary Ryan, Alex Porter, Stephan Schwander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (-37 to -41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere97304
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 13 2014

Fingerprint

Vehicle Emissions
Zeta potential
cells
mononuclear leukocytes
zeta potential
Blood Cells
Blood
Public risks
Interleukin-12 Subunit p40
Fuel additives
Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
Gasoline
Health risks
diesel engines
Cerium compounds
diesel fuel
Public health
Fuel economy
Surface charge
Diesel fuels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells. / Sarkar, Srijata; Zhang, Lin; Subramaniam, Prasad; Lee, Ki Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Ohman Strickland, Pamela A.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Ryan, Mary; Porter, Alex; Schwander, Stephan.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 5, e97304, 13.05.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sarkar, S, Zhang, L, Subramaniam, P, Lee, KB, Garfunkel, E, Ohman Strickland, PA, Mainelis, G, Lioy, PJ, Tetley, TD, Chung, KF, Zhang, J, Ryan, M, Porter, A & Schwander, S 2014, 'Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells', PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 5, e97304. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097304
Sarkar, Srijata ; Zhang, Lin ; Subramaniam, Prasad ; Lee, Ki Bum ; Garfunkel, Eric ; Ohman Strickland, Pamela A. ; Mainelis, Gediminas ; Lioy, Paul J. ; Tetley, Teresa D. ; Chung, Kian Fan ; Zhang, Junfeng ; Ryan, Mary ; Porter, Alex ; Schwander, Stephan. / Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells. In: PLoS One. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 5.
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AU - Schwander, Stephan

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