Vibrational properties of levulinic acid and furan derivatives: Raman spectroscopy and theoretical calculations

Taejin Kim, Rajeev S. Assary, Larry A. Curtiss, Christopher L. Marshall, Peter C. Stair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, the Raman spectra of furan, furfuryl alcohol (FA), furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and levulinic acid were obtained in the 500 to 4000 cm -1 spectral region at room temperature. Vibrational wavenumbers were calculated for these compounds with the B3LYP method using the 6-31 + G(2df,p) basis set. The experimentally determined C=C and C-C wavenumbers for furan and furan derivatives were in good agreement with the calculated wavenumbers without scaling factor, while the calculated C=O and C-H wavenumbers at ∼1660 and 3000 cm -1, respectively, showed larger deviations from the measured ones. The Raman spectra for furan and furan derivatives showed intense C=C bands, whereas the levulinic acid spectrum showed intense C-H vibrations with broad doublet C=O bands. We also found that an empirical method based on the chemical structure similarities is able to predict the HMF Raman spectrum from the combined furfural and FA spectra.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2069-2076
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Raman Spectroscopy
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2011



  • Raman spectra
  • combination and prediction spectrum method
  • furan
  • furan derivatives
  • levulinic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Spectroscopy

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